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Dispositifs ultra-sensibles pour le nano-adressage electrique. Application a la detection de biomolecules

Abstract : " Because technology provides the tools and biology the problems, the two should enjoy a happy marriage ! " 1. This sentence perfectly summarizes the spirit of the project underling this thesis. Indeed, the so-called fiNanobiotechnologies, that couple Micro and Nanotechnologies with biotechnologies, is an emerging domain, potentially vector of many applications as for example in the field of biodetection. The main objective of this work is dedicated to the development of new strategies for addressing biomolecules at the nanometer scale for the development of biodetection applications. The first aspect of this work is technological. Using a planar process on silicon involving high-resolution electron beam lithography and lift-off, we have demonstrated the possible fabrication of nanoelectrodes based devices presenting gaps with controlled dimensions ranging from 100nm down to 15nm. An alternative method to electron beam lithography called NanoImprint Lithography is also presented as a possible way to replicate these devices. The second part is dedicated to the implementation of a nanosystem capable to detect metallic nanoparticles using interdigitated nanoelectrodes array based device. Before applying this procedure to a biodetection application, we have studied the electrical response of these devices versus the immobilization of gold nanoparticles on their active surface. The results indicate that the response is highly sensitive and that the detection of a single nanoparticle is possible using a direct conductance measurement. Finally, these devices were used to achieve the electrical detection of biomolecules labeled with gold nanoparticles. This approach was successfully applied to the electrical detection of antigene/antibody interactions. Combining this method with a conventional detection scheme based on the interaction between a target and a probe molecules, we have demonstrated that the selectivity of the biomolecular recognition can be revealed by the im mobilization of nanoparticles on the surface and finally translated into a drastic modification of the electrical transport through the device. The integration capacities and the compatibility of this detection schema with microfluidics open very interesting perspectives for the development of high sensitive integrated biochips. 1 S. Fields, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol 98, pp 10051-10054 (2001)
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Laurent Malaquin. Dispositifs ultra-sensibles pour le nano-adressage electrique. Application a la detection de biomolecules. Physique [physics]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2004. Français. ⟨tel-00009243⟩

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