Abstract : The security services of Paris Transit Authority (RATP) have worked towards a computerized tool for the mapping and the analysis of their database of attacks on property and individuals. During a contractual research fellowship (CIFRE), a GIS has been implemented that allows automated mapping, along with spatial analysis tools and space-time crime analysis in the Paris metropolitan transit system. Crime is a strong social concern and a highly publicized phenomenon. The first part of the thesis thus focuses on the issues of norm transgression and trends towards an increased security, as they are analyzed within different scientific fields (sociology, statistics, criminology, economy). Then, the contribution of cartography is described. Widely used in the Anglo-Saxon countries, crime cartography is still under development in France. The orientation of contemporary security policies now favors such a contribution. Extractions from the SAFIRS 2001 database have set up the basis for a distribution analysis of different type of attacks, according to the transportation network and the place where it occurred. The overall picture opposes Paris and its suburbs. In the inner city, crime is concentrated on the rail system, and mainly targets individuals and travelers. In the suburbs, attacks mainly take place on ground transportation systems, and target the carrier, as representing the institution. In this crime geography, some spatial concentrations occur, that are not explained by the traffic flow in a station. With the help of spatial autocorrelation measures, the thesis demonstrates that clustering may occur in some network's vertices: animated maps thus show the transfer processes from place to place, and prepare a future implementation of dynamic space-time modeling of crime.