Abstract : In the framework of optical long haul transmissions, this thesis analyses design methodologies and feasibility of front-end electrical amplifiers for optical fibre transmissions. Following the study of the layout parasitics effect (especially the ground paths and the referenced input signals aspects) on the conventional amplifying structures, the theory of distribution was applied to our InP coplanar technology. Through a methodology that we aimed to systematise, especially for the low variation and equality group delay conditions, broadband amplifiers with Fc=92GHz and amongst others, a state of the art gain-bandwidth product of 410 GHz were fabricated. Despite the difficulties inherent to the coplanar techniques such as the ground areas discontinuity, they allow for more compact chips than the micro-strip techniques, as well as identical length input/output artificial transmission lines. The limits of the differential amplification were subsequently studied and extended, by proposing an innovating structure: the distributed differential pair. Thus, combining the constant current operation of the differential-mode (then less critical bias conditions) with the distributed broadband aspect. Amplifiers with 4 Vpp output voltage at 40 Gbit/s were fabricated in pHEMT GaAs. This is a promising result for the one-chip integration of future modulator drivers by avoiding broadband bypass capacitors.