Génération d'états non-classiques et intrication en variables continues à l'aide d'un oscillateur paramétrique optique

Abstract : This thesis studies, both theoretically and experimentally, different levels of quantum correlations in the continuous variables regime, where one or two quadratures are concerned. For this purpose, a type II optical parametric oscillator, where signal and idler beams are orthogonally polarized, has been developed. A birefringent plate inserted inside the cavity creates a coupling of the two modes and results in a frequency degenerate operation.
An original protocol of conditional preparation of a non-classical state, with a sub-Poissonian noise distribution, has been studied theoretically and realized experimentally. It relies on the intensity quantum correlations of the beams emited above threshold without the plate. A reduction by 9.5 dB of the noise on the intensity difference has been obtained.
With the plate, the beams are at the same frequency and, in principle, entangled. The degenerate operation has permited for the first time to measure the phase anti-correlations above threshold. In spite of a slight excess noise, this result opens a promising way to generate directly bright entangled beams. The optical parametric oscillator, with or without the plate, can also be operated below threshold and generate strongly entangled modes. The measured entanglement, stable during many hours, is the strongest reported to date and is preserved for noise frequencies as low as 50 kHz. With the plate, the original quantum properties are detailed and a passive operation, realized with birefringent plates, is put into evidence to maximize the entanglement. The action of passive operations on a two-mode state is discussed theoretically.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 17, 2004 - 11:37:46 PM
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Julien Laurat. Génération d'états non-classiques et intrication en variables continues à l'aide d'un oscillateur paramétrique optique. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2004. Français. ⟨tel-00007442⟩

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