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Theses

Transport et bruit quantique dans les fils mésoscopiques

Abstract : The conductance is the most natural quantity to characterize a quantum conductor. It is given by the Landauer formula. Yet, noise contains more information than conductance: it measures the current fluctuations around its average value. Moreover, the sign of the noise correlations is related to the statistics of the carriers. In a junction between a normal metal and a superconductor the noise exhibits a singularity at the Josephson frequency, a signature of the charge 2e of the Cooper pairs involved in the transport. When the voltage is larger than the gap of the superconductor, the noise characteristics shows other singularities at several frequencies which can be associated to a reflection or transmission process at the junction. The fermionic analog of the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss experiment with a superconductor allows to observe both positive and negative correlations in the same system. Applying a voltage between the terminals of a wire leads to a non-equilibrium situation. But formally, it is possible to use equilibrium quantities in a perturbative scheme called the Keldysh technique. Luttinger liquids theory describes the one-dimensional interacting electrons systems. The Hamiltonian can be rewritten in a quadratic form using bosonization. The edge states of the fractional quantum Hall effect can be described by a chiral Luttinger liquid. Using the Keldysh technique, one may recover a Schottky formula in order to identify the charge of Laughlin quasiparticles.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00007395
Contributor : Julien Torrès <>
Submitted on : Sunday, November 14, 2004 - 7:49:03 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, September 13, 2018 - 12:08:03 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, April 2, 2010 - 8:39:30 PM

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Julien Torrès. Transport et bruit quantique dans les fils mésoscopiques. Matière Condensée [cond-mat]. Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille II, 2001. Français. ⟨tel-00007395⟩

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