Oscillation de Rabi à la frontière classique-quantique et génération de chats de Schrödinger

Abstract : The manufacture and study of the decoherence of
mesoscopic superposition states, commonly called "Schrödinger
Cat" states, is an extremely active field in Cavity Quantum
Electrodynamics. In this thesis we present a new technique for the
generation of mesoscopic superposition states of the
electromagnetic field stored in the mode of a high Q
superconducting cavity. We observe that an atom interacting
resonantly with a coherent field containing a few tens of photons
splits the field into two components of opposite phase +/-phi,
where phi is inversely proportional to the square root of the
number of photons. The field and the atomic dipole are
phase-entangled. A microscopic object, here the atom, therefore
leaves its imprint on a mesoscopic object, here the field. This
effect, due to the graininess of the field, disappears in the
classical limit. We have checked the correlation between the
quantum phase of the atomic superposition and the classical phase
of the field, and have prepared a superposition of two coherent
fields of opposite phase. We have analyzed the phase distribution
of the field through a homodyne detection method, and also
estimated the coherence of the superposition produced. The size of
the "Cats" produced via this technique is of the order of 20
photons. Another motivation for these experiments is to test the
non-locality of Quantum Mechanics. We present a theoretical and
numerical study of the violation of Bell's inequalities using
coherent entangled states prepared in the modes of two separate
cavities.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 7, 2004 - 3:17:01 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00006406, version 1

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Alexia Auffeves. Oscillation de Rabi à la frontière classique-quantique et génération de chats de Schrödinger. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2004. Français. ⟨tel-00006406⟩

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