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Vitesse, accessibilité et étalement urbain ; analyse et application à l'aire urbaine dijonnaise

Abstract : The set of themes of the city is approached primarily by the means of the residential density. This concept is analyzed from a purely conceptual point of view, then more theoretical (thus making use of rather traditional econometric models: Clark, Newling) for finally being applied to the agglomeration dijonnaise like with its urban surface. One releases the great urban structures thus revealing an intermediate city between the model monocentric and polycentric. The two components are analyzed successively starting from the concept of residential density. Taking as assumption that the cities are dynamic, the second stage is that of urban sprawl out. A first introductory approach attempts to include/understand the great principles of the extension of the agglomerations as well as the factors of urban spreading out. Then, the whole of these theoretical elements is confronted with historical reality. By taking as file director the agglomeration of dijon, one studies the processes of European urban expansion. The whole of the historical phases is analyzed precisely: Antiquity, Average Age, Rebirth, Industrial revolution, first half of XXième century, second half of XXième century and finally contemporary period: phenomenon of periurbanisation. Beyond a very traditional and qualitative approach of urban spreading out, the historical analysis makes it possible to release a surface logic of growth quantitatively. Always remaining on the set of themes of urban sprawl out, another approach consists in studying the contemporary extension of the cities by the means of the densities of population and mainly starting from the model of Bussière and its alternatives (amended, sectorized, segmented, quadratic). One then studies the problem starting from the populations cumulated starting from the center. The contribution of this research is the identification of a phenomenon of urban rupture and périurbaine requiring a new amendment of the model of Bussière. The dynamic approach allows, moreover, to release what one has habit to call logics of the urban growth. After a rather econometric approach of urban spreading out, an alternative solution is proposed through the concept of urban dilution, enough little employed by the geographers. A conceptual inventory of fixtures is established then, mentioning the problem of the urban analysis fractale, a model is proposed for the concept of dilution. The decreasing logistic function is then used with an aim of better encircling the organization of the city, space périurbain and their evolution. In addition this model of dilution was tested on 25 French cities others that Dijon. It functions systematically with a very good coefficient of determination. The second set of themes approached in this research is that of transport. One first of all mentions this problem from a descriptive point of view by studying the organization of a particular road network: that of the urban surface of Dijon. It seems to get clear, from a morphological point of view, a radial logic of the road density. The whole of the parameters of the network is analyzed: curve of the roads, distribution of fires of circulation, urban portion of the lanes, type of ways, traffic and percentage of heavy lorries. Finally a case study opposes two radial accessibility basically different. After this primarily descriptive part, the second stage is to consider the question of transport by the means of the concept speed and the access times. A conceptual part on speeds makes it possible to fix the vocabulary and brings elements on the art of the traffic. A more technical part builds a model of calculation theoretical speeds resting on the logistic model and the curve of congestion flow-speed. Calculated speeds also resting on a stochastic model are analyzed starting from the descriptive statistics (standard deviation, average, extremum). The average is retained for the continuation and is integrated in the SIG for calculations of shorter ways. A chart of accessibility in the center is installation. The third set of themes is transverse and thus analyzes the relations between transport and urban sprawl out. A first approach consists in considering the relation from a purely conceptual and qualitative point of view by setting up a theoretical diagram of the couple density-speed. One second approach, analyze the question from a more technical point of view while showing initially than road speed answers a radial logic. With the passage, it is shown that the access times rest on the integration of the reverse of the function speed. The whole of the beams is studied. On the basis of the function speed, and by solving the nonlinear system composed of the model of Clark and the model speed, one develops a relation flexible speed and residential density. Thereafter, the variations of each parameter are considered. To study the relation between the access times and urban spreading out, the model of Bussière is again mobilized in measurement or one substitutes the distance by time. The same process is considered for the model of dilution. These two models make it possible to highlight a phenomenon of rupture rather in conformity with the law of Zahavi. Lastly, always in the same set of themes, the question of the room is tackled in the surface of study of north dijonnais. The access time after the startup of one four ways is simulated. One thus carries out a simulation of the impact of the startup of one twice two ways on the periurbanisation.
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Submitted on : Monday, September 27, 2004 - 6:41:24 AM
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Cyril Enault. Vitesse, accessibilité et étalement urbain ; analyse et application à l'aire urbaine dijonnaise. Géographie. Université de Bourgogne, 2003. Français. ⟨tel-00006172v4⟩



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