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Navigation d'un véhicule intelligent à l'aide d'un capteur de vision en lumière structurée et codée

Abstract : The purpose of the work presented in this thesis is the application of structured light vision (a
sensor composed by a CCD camera and a light source) to the navigation of mobile robots. This
led us to study various techniques and approaches of computer vision and image processing. First
of all, we reviewed the principal types of codification for structured light and its main applications
in robotics, medical imagery and metrology. Besides, we propose a method of image processing
for structured light with the aim to extract the segments of the image and to decode the pattern.
Then, we detail a method of three-dimensional reconstruction from an uncalibrated sensor. The
projection of a light pattern onto the environment imposes constraints to self-calibration methods.
It arises that the reconstruction has to be carried out in two steps, with a unique image capture and
a unique pattern projection. We specify the method of projective reconstruction used for our
experiments and we give a method which permits to pass from a projective to a Euclidean
reconstruction. By using the geometrical relations generated by the projection of the light pattern,
we show that it is possible to find Euclidean constraints between the points of the scene,
independent of the objects of the scene. We also propose a technique of quantitative detection of
obstacles, allowing to estimate the map of free space observed by the robot. Finally, we make a
complete study of the sensor in motion : it leads to an algorithm that allows to estimate the
displacement of the robot from planes correspondences.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, March 24, 2004 - 9:20:58 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, December 19, 2019 - 8:48:06 AM
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David Fofi. Navigation d'un véhicule intelligent à l'aide d'un capteur de vision en lumière structurée et codée. Automatique / Robotique. Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 2001. Français. ⟨tel-00005452⟩

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