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Extraction de surfaces à partir d'images tridimensionnelles : approche discrète et approche par modèle déformable

Jacques-Olivier Lachaud 1
1 INFODIS
TIMC - Techniques de l'Ingénierie Médicale et de la Complexité - Informatique, Mathématiques et Applications, Grenoble - UMR 5525
Abstract : This thesis is about the recovery of geometric representations from three-dimensional images. These representations are critical in many medical applications (surgical planning and simulation, intra-operative navigation, prosthesis manufacturing, etc) ; in cellular biology, they help in understanding the organization and metabolism of microscopic entities. Two approaches can be undertaken : - Methods based on discrete reconstruction quickly provide geometric representations from these data, but neglect the problem of segmenting the image into its components. Two of these methods are particularly used~ : the marching-cubes, which builds a triangulated surface, and the surface tracking, which delimits a digital surface. By introducing several features of digital topology, we show that these two representations are equivalent. Therefore, their respective properties can be combined efficiently. - Methods based on deformable models gather the operations of segmentation and reconstruction into a single process : models seek image components by deforming their shape according to external forces, computed from the image, and internal constraints, derived from their geometric structure. Existing models are often restricted to the recovery of simple shapes. We propose a generic deformable model, based on a triangulated surface, which can automatically adapt its mesh topology to the deformations of its geometry. With this ability, the model can track and recover arbitrarily complex shapes of images and carry out their coarse-to-fine extraction with a multi-resolution approach. Finally, we exhibit the potentialities of this model on biomedical data coming from various modalities. The results are compared with the ones obtained by discrete reconstruction, and then combined to take advantage of the characteristics of both approaches.
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Jacques-Olivier Lachaud. Extraction de surfaces à partir d'images tridimensionnelles : approche discrète et approche par modèle déformable. Modélisation et simulation. Université Joseph-Fourier - Grenoble I, 1998. Français. ⟨tel-00004892⟩

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