J. Adams, mudpack: Multigrid portable fortran software for the efficient solution of linear elliptic partial differential equations, Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol.34, issue.2, pp.113-146, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0096-3003(89)90010-6

J. Adams, P. Swarztrauber, and P. Sweet, EFFICIENT FORTRAN SUBPROGRAMS FOR THE SOLUTION OF ELLIPTIC PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, Elliptic Problem Solvers, pp.333-390, 1982.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-12-632620-8.50014-0

C. Anderson and C. Greengard, On Vortex Methods, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, vol.22, issue.3, pp.413-440, 1985.
DOI : 10.1137/0722025

C. Anderson and C. Greengard, The vortex ring merger problem at infinite reynolds number, Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol.55, issue.8, pp.1123-1139, 1989.
DOI : 10.1002/cpa.3160420806

C. Anderson, C. Greengard, and M. Henderson, Instability, vortex shedding, and numerical convergence, Vortex methods, Proceedings of UCLA Workshop, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/BFb0089770

H. M. Badr and S. C. Dennis, Time-dependent viscous flow past an impulsively started rotating and translating circular cylinder, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.13, issue.-1, pp.447-488, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0045-7930(81)90014-1

M. Bar-lev and H. T. Yang, Initial flow field over an impulsively started circular cylinder, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.12, issue.04, pp.625-647, 1975.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1692470

D. Barkley and R. D. Henderson, Three-dimensional Floquet stability analysis of the wake of a circular cylinder, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.199, issue.-1, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9991(91)90007-8

G. K. Batchelor, An introduction to Fluid Dynamics, 1967.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511800955

J. T. Beale, On the Accuracy of Vortex Methods at Large Times, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Reacting Gas Flows Institute for Mathematics and its Application, pp.19-32, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4612-3882-9_2

J. T. Beale and A. Majda, Rates of convergence for viscous splitting of the Navier-Stokes equations, Mathematics of Computation, vol.37, issue.156, pp.243-259, 1981.
DOI : 10.1090/S0025-5718-1981-0628693-0

J. T. Beale and A. Majda, Vortex methods I : convergence in three dimensions, Math. Comp, vol.39, pp.1-28, 1982.

J. T. Beale and A. Majda, Vortex methods II : higher order accuracy in two and three dimensions, Math. Comp, vol.39, pp.29-52, 1982.

J. T. Beale and A. Majda, High order accurate vortex methods with explicit velocity kernels, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.58, issue.2, pp.188-208, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9991(85)90176-7

P. Bearman, Bluff body hydrodynamics, Twentyfirst symposium on naval hydrodynamics, 1997.

P. Beaudan and P. Moin, Numerical experiments on the flow past circular cylinders at sub-critical Reynolds numbers, 1994.

H. M. Blackburn and R. D. Henderson, A study of two-dimensional flow past an oscillating cylinder, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.385, pp.255-286, 1999.
DOI : 10.1017/S0022112099004309

J. Brackbill and H. , FLIP: A method for adaptively zoned, particle-in-cell calculations of fluid flows in two dimensions, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.65, issue.2, pp.314-343, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9991(86)90211-1

A. Brandt, Multi-level adaptive solutions to boundary-value problems, Mathematics of Computation, vol.31, issue.138, p.31, 1977.
DOI : 10.1090/S0025-5718-1977-0431719-X

Y. Brenier and G. H. Cottet, Convergence of particle methods with random rezoning for the 2D Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, SIAM J. Num. Anal, vol.32, 1995.

H. Brezis, Analyse Fonctionnelle, Théorie et Applications, 1983.

B. Buzbee, G. Golub, and C. Nielson, On Direct Methods for Solving Poisson???s Equations, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, vol.7, issue.4, pp.627-656
DOI : 10.1137/0707049

C. M. Casciola, R. Piva, and P. Bassanini, Vorticity Generation on a Flat Surface in 3D Flows, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.129, issue.2, pp.345-356, 1996.
DOI : 10.1006/jcph.1996.0254

N. and D. Césaré, Outils pour l'optimisation de forme et contrôle optimal, application à la mécanique des fluides, 2000.

Y. Chen, Y. Ou, and A. Pearlstein, Development of the wake behind a circular cylinder impulsively started into rotatory and rectilinear motion, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.180, issue.-1, p.449, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0045-7930(91)90034-F

M. Chipot and A. , Sur le comportement asymptotique de la solution de probl??mes elliptiques dans des domaines cylindriques tendant vers l'infini, Comptes Rendus de l'Acad??mie des Sciences - Series I - Mathematics, vol.331, issue.6, pp.435-440, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0764-4442(00)01675-X

J. P. Choquin and G. H. Cottet, Sur l'analyse d'une classe de méthodes de vortex tridimensionnelles, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Série, vol.1, issue.304, pp.739-742, 1988.

A. J. Chorin, Numerical study of slightly viscous flow, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.23, issue.04, pp.785-796, 1973.
DOI : 10.1017/S0022112073002016

J. P. Christiansen, Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamics by the Method of Point Vortices, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.135, issue.2, pp.189-197, 1997.
DOI : 10.1006/jcph.1997.5701

A. Cohen and B. Perthame, Optimal Approximations of Transport Equations by Particle and Pseudoparticle Methods, SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis, vol.32, issue.3, pp.616-636, 2000.
DOI : 10.1137/S0036141099350353

R. Comolet, Mécanique expérimentale de fluides, 1982.

G. H. Cottet, Dynamique cochléaire en dimension un, et méthodes particulaires pour l'équation d'Euler dans le plan, 1982.

G. H. Cottet, Analyse numérique des méthodes particulaires pour certains problèmes non-linéaires. Doctorat d'état, 1987.

G. H. Cottet, Convergence of a vortex in cell method for the two-dimensional Euler equations, Mathematics of Computation, vol.49, issue.180, pp.407-425, 1987.
DOI : 10.1090/S0025-5718-1987-0906179-9

G. H. Cottet, A new approach for the analysis of Vortex Methods in two and three dimensions, Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis, vol.5, issue.3, pp.227-285, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/S0294-1449(16)30346-8

G. H. Cottet, Vorticity boundary conditions and the deterministic vortex method for the Navier-Stokes equation, Mathematical aspects of vortex dynamics. SIAM, 1989.

G. H. Cottet, Large-time behavior of deterministic particle approximations to the Navier-Stokes equations, Mathematics of Computation, vol.56, issue.193, pp.45-59, 1991.
DOI : 10.1090/S0025-5718-1991-1052089-X

G. H. Cottet, A Vorticity Creation Algorithm for the Navier-Stokes Equations in Arbitrary Domain, Navier-Stokes equations and related nonlinear problems, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4899-1415-6_27

G. H. Cottet, Artificial Viscosity Models for Vortex and Particle Methods, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.127, issue.2, pp.299-308, 1996.
DOI : 10.1006/jcph.1996.0176

G. H. Cottet, On 3D vortex schemes, ASME Conference, 1996.

G. H. Cottet, 3D Vortex methods: achievements and challenges, Vortex Methods, 1999.
DOI : 10.1142/9789812793232_0015

G. H. Cottet and P. D. Koumoutsakos, Vortex Methods, Theory and Practice, 2000.

G. H. Cottet and S. Mas-gallic, A particle method to solve the Navier-Stokes system, Numerische Mathematik, vol.27, issue.1, pp.1-23, 1990.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01386445

G. H. Cottet, I. Sbalzarini, S. Müller, and P. Koumoutsakos, Optimization of trailing vortices by evolution strategies, Summer Program of the Center for Turbulence Research, 2000.

G. H. Cottet and O. V. Vassilyev, Comparison of dynamic Smagorisky and anisotropic subgrid-scale models, Summer Program of the Center for Turbulence Research, pp.389-397, 1998.

G. H. Cottet and A. A. Wray, Anisotropic grid-based formulas for subgrid-scale models, Annual Research Briefs, 1997.

G. H. Cottet, B. Michaux, S. Ossia, and G. Vanderlinden, A Comparison of Spectral and Vortex Methods in Three-Dimensional Incompressible Flows, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.175, issue.2, 2001.
DOI : 10.1006/jcph.2001.6963

J. Cousteix, Aérodynamique, Turbulence et Couche Limite, CEPADUES-Editions, 1989.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-34016-5

M. Coutenceau and C. Menard, Influence of rotation on the near-wake development behind an impulsively started circular cylinder, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.116, issue.-1, pp.399-446, 1985.
DOI : 10.1063/1.863491

R. Dautray and J. L. Lions, Analyse mathématique et calcul numérique pour les sciences et techniques, 1987.

P. Degond and S. Mas-gallic, The weighted particle method for convectiondiffusion equations, Math. Comput, vol.53, pp.485-526, 1989.

S. Dennis, P. Nguyen, and S. Kocabiyik, The flow induced by a rotationally oscillating and translating circular cylinder, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.407, pp.123-144, 2000.
DOI : 10.1017/S0022112099007478

A. Friedmann, Partial differential equations of parabolic type, 1964.

S. Ghosal, T. Lund, P. Moin, and K. Akselvoll, A dynamic localization model for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.256, issue.-1, pp.229-255, 1995.
DOI : 10.1063/1.861942

X. Giannakopoulos, Internal research report, ETH Zürich, 2000.

X. Giannakopoulos, M. Milano, and P. Koumoutsakos, Communication privée, ETH Zürich, 2000.

J. Giroire, Etude de quelques problèmes aux limites extérieurs et résolution par équations intégrales, 1987.

L. F. Greengard, The Rapid Evaluation of Potential Fields in Particle Systems, 1988.

O. Hald, Convergence of Vortex Methods for Euler???s Equations. II, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, vol.16, issue.5, pp.726-755, 1979.
DOI : 10.1137/0716055

M. Hammache and M. Gharib, An experimental study of the parallel and oblique vortex shedding from circular cylinders, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.78, issue.-1, pp.567-590, 1991.
DOI : 10.1063/1.857568

M. Hamraoui, Contribution à la simulation d'écoulement tridimensionnel par méthode de vortex, 1999.

F. Harlow, The particle-in-cell method for fluid dynamics, Methods in Computational Physics, 1964.

R. D. Henderson, Adaptative spectral element methods for turbulence and transition, California Institute of Technology, 1995.

R. D. Henderson, Details of the drag curve near the onset of vortex shedding, Physics of Fluids, vol.7, issue.9, 1995.
DOI : 10.1063/1.868459

R. D. Henderson, Nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation in turbulent wake transition, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.352, pp.65-112, 1997.
DOI : 10.1017/S0022112097007465

R. D. Henderson and D. Barkley, Secondary instability in the wake of a circular cylinder, Physics of Fluids, vol.8, issue.6, pp.1683-1685, 1996.
DOI : 10.1063/1.868939

R. W. Hockney and J. W. Eastwood, Computer Simulation using Particles, 1981.
DOI : 10.1201/9781439822050

S. Jordan, Large-eddy simulation of the vortical motion resulting from flow over bluff bodies, National academy press Twenty-first symposium on naval hydrodynamics, 1997.

S. A. Jordan, The Large-Eddy simulation of incompressible flows in simple and complex geometries, 1994.

G. Karniadakis and G. Triantafyllou, Three-dimensional dynamics and transition to turbulence in the wake of bluff objects, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.3, issue.-1, pp.1-30, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01020332

J. Kim and P. Moin, Application of a fractional-step method to incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.59, issue.2, pp.308-323, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9991(85)90148-2

J. X. Kong, Contribution a l'analyse numérique des méthodes de couplage particules-grille en mécanique des fluides, 1993.

P. Koumoutsakos, Active control of vortex???wall interactions, Physics of Fluids, vol.9, issue.12, 1997.
DOI : 10.1063/1.869515

P. Koumoutsakos, Feedback control algorithms for flow control, IUTAM Conforence for Flow Optimization, 1998.

P. Koumoutsakos, Feedback control algorithms for turbulence flow control, NSF Conference for Flow Control, 1999.

P. Koumoutsakos, Vorticity flux control for a turbulent channel flow, Physics of Fluids, vol.11, issue.2, 1999.
DOI : 10.1063/1.869874

P. Koumoutsakos and A. Leonard, Improved boundary integral method for inviscid boundary condition applications, AIAA Journal, vol.31, issue.2, 1993.
DOI : 10.2514/3.11682

P. Koumoutsakos and A. Leonard, Numerical simulations of the flow past a circular cylinder performing rotary oscillation, AIAA Shear Flow Conference, pp.93-3276, 1993.

P. Koumoutsakos and A. Leonard, Vorticity fields around an impulsively started cylinder at Re=9500, Phys. Fluids A, 1995.

P. Koumoutsakos, A. Leonard, and F. Pepin, Boundary Conditions for Viscous Vortex Methods, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.113, issue.1, pp.52-56, 1994.
DOI : 10.1006/jcph.1994.1117

P. Koumoutsakos and P. Moin, Machine learning algorithms for flow optimization, IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 1999.

P. D. Koumoutsakos, Direct Numerical Simulations of Unsteady Separated Flows Using Vortex Methods, 1992.

P. D. Koumoutsakos, High-resolution simulations of the flow around an impulsively started cylinder using vortex methods, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.29, issue.-1, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9991(80)90049-2

A. G. Kravchenko, P. Moin, and K. Shariff, B-spline method and zonal grids for simulations of complex turbulent flows, 35th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, pp.757-789, 1999.
DOI : 10.2514/6.1997-433

H. O. Kreiss, Numerical methods for solving time-dependent problems for partial differential equations, 1978.

A. Leonard and P. Koumoutsakos, High resolution vortex simulation of bluff body flows, J. Wind Eng, 1992.

J. L. Lions and E. Magenes, Non-Homogeneous Boundary Value Problems and Applications, 1972.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-65161-8

J. Marsden and S. Shkoller, Global well-posedness for the Lagrangian averaged Navier-Stokes (LANS-??) equations on bounded domains, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol.359, issue.1784, pp.1449-1468, 2001.
DOI : 10.1098/rsta.2001.0852

J. E. Marsden, Properties of infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Number 425 in Lecture Notes in Mathematics, 1974.

J. E. Marsden and T. S. Ratiu, Introduction to Mechanics and Symmetry, 1994.

M. Milano, X. Giannakopoulos, and P. Koumoutskos, Evolving strategies for active flow control, Proceedings of the 2000 Congress on Evolutionary Computation. CEC00 (Cat. No.00TH8512), 2000.
DOI : 10.1109/CEC.2000.870297

M. Milano and P. Koumoutsakos, A self-organizing genetic algorithm for cylinder drag optimization, Syst. Man and Cybernetics, 2001.

M. Milano and P. Koumoutskos, A clustering algorithm for cylinder drag optimisation, J. Comp. Phys

R. Mittal and S. Balachandar, Effect of three???dimensionality on the lift and drag of nominally two???dimensional cylinders, Physics of Fluids, vol.7, issue.8, p.1841, 1995.
DOI : 10.1063/1.868500

S. Mittal and V. Kumar, Finite element study of vortex-induced cross-flow and in-line oscillations of a circular cylinder at low Reynolds numbers, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, vol.9, issue.7, pp.1087-1120, 1999.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0363(19991215)31:7<1087::AID-FLD911>3.0.CO;2-C

H. K. Moffatt, The degree of knottedness of tangled vortex lines, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.42, issue.01, pp.117-129, 1969.
DOI : 10.1086/146186

P. Moin, K. Squires, W. Cabot, and S. Lee, A dynamic subgrid???scale model for compressible turbulence and scalar transport, Physics of Fluids A: Fluid Dynamics, vol.3, issue.11, pp.2746-2757, 1991.
DOI : 10.1063/1.858164

J. J. Monaghan, Extrapolating B splines for interpolation, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.60, issue.2, pp.253-262, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9991(85)90006-3

M. M. Rai and P. Moin, Direct simulations of turbulent flow using finite-difference schemes, 27th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, pp.15-53, 1991.
DOI : 10.2514/6.1989-369

P. A. Raviart, An analisys of particle methods, Lecture note in Math, 1981.

P. A. Raviart and J. M. Thomas, Introduction à l'analyse numérique des équations aux dérivées partielles, 1992.

J. Rosenhead, The Formation of Vortices from a Surface of Discontinuity, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, pp.170-192, 1931.
DOI : 10.1098/rspa.1931.0189

Y. Saad and M. Schultz, Conjugate gradient-like algorithms for solving nonsymmetric linear systems, Mathematics of Computation, vol.44, issue.170, pp.417-424, 1985.
DOI : 10.1090/S0025-5718-1985-0777273-9

Y. Saad and M. Schultz, GMRES: A Generalized Minimal Residual Algorithm for Solving Nonsymmetric Linear Systems, SIAM Journal on Scientific and Statistical Computing, vol.7, issue.3, pp.856-869, 1986.
DOI : 10.1137/0907058

M. L. Sahili, Couplage de méthodes numériques en simulation directe d'écoulements incompressibles, 1998.

I. J. Schoenberg, Cardinal spline interpolation, SIAM, 1973.
DOI : 10.1137/1.9781611970555

T. G. Shepherd, Extremal Properties and Hamiltonian Structure of the Euler Equations, Topological aspects of the dynamics of fluids and plasma, pp.275-292, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-017-3550-6_15

M. Shumm, E. Berger, and P. Monkewitz, Self-excited oscillations in the wake of two-dimensional bluff bodies and their control, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.122, p.17, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/S0889-9746(89)90026-1

J. H. Strickland, L. A. Gritzo, R. S. Baty, and G. F. Homicz, Fast multipole solvers for three-dimensional radiation and fluid flow problems, Third international workshop on vortex flows and related numerical methods, pp.408-417, 1999.
DOI : 10.1051/proc:1999038

P. Strykowsky and K. Sreenivasan, On the formation and suppression of vortex ???shedding??? at low Reynolds numbers, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.5, issue.-1, p.71, 1990.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00198449

S. Taneda, The Stability of Two-Dimensional Laminar Wakes at Low Reynolds Numbers, Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, vol.18, issue.2, pp.288-296, 1963.
DOI : 10.1143/JPSJ.18.288

S. Taneda, Visual Observations of the Flow past a Circular Cylinder Performing a Rotatory Oscillation, Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, vol.45, issue.3, pp.1038-1041, 1978.
DOI : 10.1143/JPSJ.45.1038

R. Temam, Navier-Stockes equations and nonlinear functional analysis, SIAM, 1995.

C. Thole and U. Trottenberg, Basic smoothing procedures for the multigrid treatment of elliptic 3D operators, Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol.19, issue.1-4, pp.333-345, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0096-3003(86)90112-8

A. Thom and J. Orr, The Solution of the Torsion Problem for Circular Shafts of Varying Radius, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, pp.30-37, 1931.
DOI : 10.1098/rspa.1931.0035

M. Thompson, K. Hourigan, and J. Sheridan, Three-dimensional instabilities in the wake of a circular cylinder, CSIRO, editor, Intl. Colloq. Jets, Wakes and Shear Layer, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0894-1777(95)00098-4

M. Thompson, K. Hourigan, and J. Sheridan, Three-dimensional instabilities in the wake of a circular cylinder, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol.12, issue.2, pp.190-196, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0894-1777(95)00098-4

P. Tokumaru and P. Dimotakis, Rotary oscillation control of a cylinder wake, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.182, issue.-1, pp.77-90, 1991.
DOI : 10.1017/S0022112088001570

A. Tomboulides, G. Triantafyllou, and G. Karniadakis, A new mechanism of period doubling in free shear flows, Physics of Fluids A: Fluid Dynamics, vol.4, issue.7, pp.1329-1332, 1992.
DOI : 10.1063/1.858409

D. J. Tritton, Experiments on the flow past a circular cylinder at low Reynolds numbers, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.13, issue.04, pp.93-117, 1959.
DOI : 10.1143/JPSJ.13.418

M. F. Unal and D. Rockwell, On vortex formation from a cylinder. Part 1. The initial instability, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.288, issue.-1, pp.491-512, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-460X(83)90475-3

G. Vanderlinden, Simulation de turbulence par méthode particulaire, 1998.

R. Verzicco and P. Orlandi, Normal and oblique collisions of a vortex ring with a wall, Meccanica, vol.11, issue.4, pp.383-391, 1994.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00987573

C. Wieselsberger, Neuere feststellungen über die Gesetze des Flußigkeits und Luftwiderstands, Phys. Z, vol.22, 1921.

C. Wieselsberger, New data on the laws of fluid resistance, 1922.

C. H. Williamson, The existence of two stages in the transition to three-dimensionality of a cylinder wake, Physics of Fluids, vol.31, issue.11, pp.3165-3168, 1988.
DOI : 10.1063/1.866925

C. H. Williamson, Oblique and parallel modes of vortex shedding in the wake of a circular cylinder at low Reynolds numbers, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.199, issue.-1, pp.579-627, 1989.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1694554

C. H. Williamson, 2D and 3D aspects of the wake of a cylinder, and their relation to wake computation, Vortex Dynamics and Vortex Methods of Lectures in Applied Methematics, pp.719-751, 1991.

C. H. Williamson, The natural and forced formation of spot-like ???vortex dislocations??? in the transition of a wake, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.2, issue.-1, pp.393-441, 1992.
DOI : 10.1017/S0022112080002807

C. H. Williamson, Three-dimensional wake transition, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.8, issue.-1, p.345, 1996.
DOI : 10.1063/1.868942

G. Winckelmans, Topics in vortex methods for the computation of three-and two-dimensional incompressible unsteady flows, 1988.

G. Winckelmans and A. Leonard, Weak solutions of the three-dimensional vorticity equation with vortex singularities, Physics of Fluids, vol.31, issue.7, pp.1838-1839, 1988.
DOI : 10.1063/1.866680

G. Winckelmans and A. Leonard, Improved vortex methods for three-dimensional flows, Mathematical aspects of vortex dynamics, 1989.

G. Winckelmans and A. Leonard, Contributions to Vortex Particle Methods for the Computation of Three-Dimensional Incompressible Unsteady Flows, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.109, issue.2, pp.247-273, 1993.
DOI : 10.1006/jcph.1993.1216

E. Zeidler, Non-Linear Functional Analysis and its Applications, 1990.