Abstract : The work presented here deals with the measurement of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. We first recall the basement of the standard model of cosmology, with particular focus on the main interests of the polarization of the cosmic background radiation for cosmology. We then describe the Archeops and Planck experiments, and their detectors. The calibration of the Planck high frequency instrument needs an optical system for which we have searched for a scattering surface and a polarizer adapted for millimetric wavelengths. We have also studied the influence of instrumental parameters on the measurement of polarization, especially the effects related to the beams. We thus show the importance of time constants and relative calibration. Finally, we finish with the analysis of Archeops data and show the presence of polarized galactic clouds at 353 GHz at more than 10%, using an original intercalibration method.