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Mesure du rayonnement cosmologique : Préparation et étalonnage des instruments Archeops et Planck

Abstract : The measurement of the cosmological background (CMB for Cosmic Microwave Back-ground) is at a crucial point. The experiments that measure this radiation are more and more sensitive and precise. Two different instruments are presented in this thesis : Archeops and Planck. They are aiming at measuring the temperature anisotropies of the CMB. In the first section of this manuscript we present our work on the optimisation of the cooling of the detectors by means of an open cycle dilution refrigerator for the Planck/HFI instrument. Three different types of supports are studied in order to reach 100 mK with 100 nW of cooling power. During the different tests we concentrated on having a better understanding of the physical processes which take place in an open cycle dilution. In a second section we present an original way to filter temperature fluctuations at 100 mK using a high specific heat material. The HoY alloy has been qualified for space applications in order to be used for the Planck experiement. The third section of this manuscript concentrates on Archeops, a balloon-borne, experiment. We present different aspects of the instrumentation needed in order to measure the CMB. The cryogenics, especially designed for a balloon experiment is detailed as well as the bolometric detectors and the associated electronics. This last section finishes with the current results of the Archeops team. The data obtained during the last ight (Febuary 2002) is very promising and should allow to constrain the cosmological parameters in a significant way.
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Contributor : Nathalie Le Moulec <>
Submitted on : Friday, January 16, 2004 - 11:29:12 AM
Last modification on : Friday, December 18, 2020 - 1:34:04 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, April 2, 2010 - 7:07:40 PM


  • HAL Id : tel-00004190, version 1




Karine Madet. Mesure du rayonnement cosmologique : Préparation et étalonnage des instruments Archeops et Planck. Cosmologie et astrophysique extra-galactique [astro-ph.CO]. Université Joseph-Fourier - Grenoble I, 2002. Français. ⟨tel-00004190⟩



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