V. A. Casagrande, The mystery of the visual system K pathway, The Journal of Physiology, vol.80, issue.3, p.630, 1999.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-7793.1999.0630s.x

C. Chen, T. Kasamatsu, U. Polat, and A. M. Norcia, Contrast response characteristics of long-range lateral interactions in cat striate cortex, Neuroreport, vol.12, issue.4, pp.655-661, 2001.
DOI : 10.1097/00001756-200103260-00008

L. J. Croner and E. Kaplan, Receptive fields of P and M ganglion cells across the primate retina, Vision Research, vol.35, issue.1, pp.7-24, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6989(94)E0066-T

M. Dengler and W. Nitschke, Color stereopsis: A model for depth reversals based on border contrast, Perception & Psychophysics, vol.8, issue.2, pp.150-156, 1993.
DOI : 10.3758/BF03211725

B. Dresp, Bright lines and edges facilitate the detection of small light targets, Spatial Vision, pp.213-225, 1993.

B. Dresp, The effect of practice on the visual detection of near-threshold lines, Spatial Vision, pp.315-327, 1998.

B. Dresp, Dynamic characteristics of spatial mechanisms coding contour structures, Spatial Vision, pp.129-142, 1999.

B. Dresp, Do alignement thresholds define a critical boundary in long-range detection facilitation with colinear stimuli, Spatial Vision, pp.343-357, 2000.

B. Dresp and S. Grossberg, Contour Integration Across Polarities and Spatial Gaps: From Local Contrast Filtering to Global Grouping, Vision Research, vol.37, issue.7, pp.913-924, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0042-6989(96)00227-1

D. P. Edwards, K. P. Purpura, and E. Kaplan, Contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency response of primate cortical neurons in and around the cytochrome oxidase blobs, Vision Research, vol.35, issue.11, pp.1501-1523, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6989(94)00253-I

B. Efron, Bootstrap methods : another look at the jacknife, The Annals of Statistics, pp.1-26, 1979.

W. H. Ehrenstein and L. Spillmann, Time thresholds for increments and decrements in luminance, Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol.73, issue.4, pp.419-426, 1983.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSA.73.000419

D. Eyding, G. Schweigart, and U. T. Eysel, Spatio???temporal plasticity of cortical receptive fields in response to repetitive visual stimulation in the adult cat, Neuroscience, vol.112, issue.1, pp.195-215, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00039-8

U. T. Eysel, D. Eyding, and G. Schweigart, Repetitive optical stimulation elicits fast receptive field changes in mature visual cortex, NeuroReport, vol.9, issue.5, pp.949-954, 1998.
DOI : 10.1097/00001756-199803300-00034

F. Flamant, Étude de la répartition de la lumière dans l'image rétinienne d'une fente, Revue d'optique théorique et intrumentale, pp.433-459, 1955.

D. H. Foster and W. F. Bischof, Thresholds from psychometric functions: Superiority of bootstrap to incremental and probit variance estimators., Psychological Bulletin, vol.109, issue.1, pp.152-159, 1991.
DOI : 10.1037/0033-2909.109.1.152

M. Fahle, S. Edelman, and T. Poggio, Fast perceptual learning in hyperacuity, Fast perceptual learning in hyperacuity, pp.3003-3013, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6989(95)00044-Z

D. J. Field, A. Hayes, and R. F. Hess, Contour integration by the human visual system: Evidence for a local ???association field???, Vision Research, vol.33, issue.2, pp.173-193, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6989(93)90156-Q

C. D. Gilbert, Adult cortical dynamics, Physiological reviews, pp.467-485, 1998.

R. L. Goldstone, PERCEPTUAL LEARNING, Perceptual learning, pp.585-612, 1998.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.585

S. Grossberg, Adaptive pattern classification and universal recoding: I. Parallel development and coding of neural feature detectors, Biological Cybernetics, vol.28, issue.3, pp.121-134, 1976.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00344744

S. Grossberg, Adaptative pattern classification and universal recoding : II. Feedback, expectation, olfaction, illusions, Biological Cybernetics, vol.23, pp.187-202, 1976.

S. Grossberg, Nonlinear neural networks: Principles, mechanisms, and architectures, Neural Networks, vol.1, issue.1, pp.17-61, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0893-6080(88)90021-4

S. Grossberg and R. D. Raizada, Contrast-sensitive perceptual grouping and object-based attention in the laminar circuits of primary visual cortex, Vision Research, vol.40, issue.10-12, pp.1413-1432, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0042-6989(99)00229-1

S. Grossberg and J. R. Williamson, A neural model of how horizontal and interlaminar connections of visual cortex develop into adult circuits that carry out parceptual grouping and learning, rapport technique du Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems, 1999.

S. Grossberg and J. R. Williamson, A Neural Model of how Horizontal and Interlaminar Connections of Visual Cortex Develop into Adult Circuits that Carry Out Perceptual Grouping and Learning, Cerebral Cortex, vol.11, issue.1, pp.37-58, 2001.
DOI : 10.1093/cercor/11.1.37

J. H. Van-hateren, Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity of early vision, Vision Research, vol.33, issue.2, pp.257-267, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6989(93)90163-Q

E. G. Heinemann, Simultaneous brightness induction as a function of inducing- and test-field luminances., Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol.50, issue.2, pp.89-96, 1955.
DOI : 10.1037/h0040919

A. L. Hodgkin and A. F. Huxley, A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve, The Journal of Physiology, vol.117, issue.4, pp.500-544, 1952.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.1952.sp004764

D. Hubel, L'oeil, le cerveau et la vision, éd, Pour la Science, 1994.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat's visual cortex, The Journal of Physiology, vol.160, issue.1, pp.106-154, 1962.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.1962.sp006837

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, Sequence regularity and geometry of orientation columns in the monkey striate cortex, The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol.17, issue.3, pp.267-294, 1974.
DOI : 10.1002/cne.901580304

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, Uniformity of monkey striate cortex: A parallel relationship between field size, scatter, and magnification factor, The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol.153, issue.3, pp.295-306, 1974.
DOI : 10.1002/cne.901580305

G. E. Irvin, V. A. Casagrande, and T. T. Norton, Abstract, Visual Neuroscience, vol.45, issue.02, pp.363-373, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0028-3932(91)90003-Q

J. Kant, Modélisation et mise en oeuvre de processus cognitifs de catégorisation à l'aide d'un réseau connexionniste, Thèse, 1996.

M. K. Kapadia, M. Ito, C. D. Gilbert, and G. Westheimer, Improvement in visual sensitivity by changes in local context: Parallel studies in human observers and in V1 of alert monkeys, Neuron, vol.15, issue.4, pp.843-856, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0896-6273(95)90175-2

M. K. Kapadia, G. Westheimer, and C. D. Gilbert, Spatial distribution of contextual interactions in primary visual cortex and in visual perception, Journal of Neurophysiology, vol.84, pp.2048-2062, 2000.

A. Karni and D. Sagi, The time course of learning a visual skill, Nature, vol.365, issue.6443, pp.250-252, 1993.
DOI : 10.1038/365250a0

B. B. Lee, Receptive field structure in the primate retina, Vision Research, vol.36, issue.5, pp.631-644, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6989(95)00167-0

G. E. Legge and J. M. Foley, Contrast masking in human vision, Contrast masking in human vision, pp.1458-1471, 1980.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSA.70.001458

M. S. Livingstone and D. H. Hubel, Psychophysical evidence for separate channels for the perception of form, color, movement, and depth, The Journal of Neuroscience, vol.7, pp.3416-3468, 1987.

S. P. Mckee, S. A. Klein, and D. Y. Teller, Statistical properties of forced-choice psychometric functions: Implications of probit analysis, Perception & Psychophysics, vol.1, issue.4, pp.286-298, 1985.
DOI : 10.3758/BF03211350

R. D. Raizada and S. Grossberg, Context-sensitive binding by the laminar circuits of V1 and V2: A unified model of perceptual grouping, attention, and orientation contrast, Visual Cognition, vol.79, issue.3-5, pp.431-466, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0042-6989(97)00197-1

R. D. Raizada and S. Grossberg, Towards a Theory of the Laminar Architecture of Cerebral Cortex: Computational Clues from the Visual System, Cerebral Cortex, vol.13, issue.1, pp.100-113, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/cercor/13.1.100

D. Sagi and D. Tanne, Perceptual learning: learning to see, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, vol.4, issue.2, pp.195-199, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0959-4388(94)90072-8

B. Scherrer, Biostatistique, éd. gaëtant morin, 1984.

P. H. Schiller, The ON and OFF channels of the visual system, Trends in Neurosciences, vol.15, issue.3, pp.86-92, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0166-2236(92)90017-3

P. H. Schiller, The ON and OFF channels of the mammalian visual system, Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/1350-9462(95)00009-7

R. Shapley and C. Enroth-cugell, Chapter 9 Visual adaptation and retinal gain controls, Progress in Retinal Research, vol.3, pp.263-346, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0278-4327(84)90011-7

R. Shapley, R. , and R. C. , Contrast and assimilation in the perception of brightness., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, pp.5983-5986, 1985.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.82.17.5983

L. Simon, Adapatation visuelle et connexions courtes distances : comparaison de données psychophysiques et modèles théoriques, Mémoire de fin d'études, 2002.

J. A. Solomon, A. B. Watson, and M. J. Morgan, Transducer model produces facilitation from opposite-sign flanks, Vision Research, vol.39, issue.5, pp.987-992, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0042-6989(98)00143-6

URL : http://doi.org/10.1016/s0042-6989(98)00143-6

L. Spillmann and W. H. Ehrenstein, From Neuron to Gestalt: Mechanisms of Visual Perception, Comprehensive Human Physiology, vol.143, pp.861-893, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-60946-6_44

D. J. Swift and R. A. Smith, Spatial frequency masking and Weber's Law, Spatial frequency masking and Weber's law, pp.495-505, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6989(83)90124-4

URL : http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/25421/1/0000870.pdf

D. J. Tolhurst, J. A. Movshon, and A. F. Dean, The statistical reliability of signals in single neurons in cat and monkey visual cortex, Vision Research, vol.23, issue.8, pp.775-785, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6989(83)90200-6

N. Treutwein and H. Strasburger, Fitting the psychometric function, Perception & Psychophysics, vol.25, issue.1, pp.87-106, 1999.
DOI : 10.3758/BF03211951

URL : http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/pub/med/2007/strasburger-99-fitting.pdf

C. W. Tyler, H. Chan, and L. Liu, Different spatial tunings for ON and OFF pathway stimulation, Ophtalmic and Physiological Optics, pp.233-240, 1992.

T. Tzvetanov and B. Dresp, Short- and long-range effects in line contrast integration, Vision Research, vol.42, issue.22, pp.2493-2498, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0042-6989(02)00198-0

A. B. Watson and J. A. Solomon, Model of visual contrast gain control and pattern masking, Journal of the Optical Society of America A, vol.14, issue.9, pp.2379-2391, 1997.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAA.14.002379

C. Wehrhahn and B. Dresp, Detection facilitation by collinear stimuli in humans: Dependence on strength and sign of contrast, Vision Research, vol.38, issue.3, pp.423-428, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0042-6989(97)00141-7

G. Westheimer, Lines and gabor functions compared as spatial visual stimuli, Vision Research, vol.38, issue.4, pp.487-491, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0042-6989(97)00192-2

URL : http://doi.org/10.1016/s0042-6989(97)00192-2

G. Westheimer, The Fourier theory of vision, Perception, pp.531-541, 2001.

G. Westheimer and F. W. Campbell, Light Distribution in the Image Formed by the Living Human Eye*, Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol.52, issue.9, pp.1040-1045, 1962.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSA.52.001040

F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit, Perception & Psychophysics, vol.63, issue.8, pp.1293-1313, 2001.
DOI : 10.3758/BF03194544

F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling, Perception & Psychophysics, vol.63, issue.8, pp.1314-1329, 2001.
DOI : 10.3758/BF03194545

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, Ordered arrangement of orientation columns in monkeys lacking visual experience, The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol.28, issue.3, pp.307-318, 1974.
DOI : 10.1002/cne.901580306

C. Yu and D. Levi, Spatial facilitation predicted with end-stopped spatial filters, Vision Research, vol.37, issue.22, pp.3117-3127, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0042-6989(97)00120-X

URL : http://doi.org/10.1016/s0042-6989(97)00120-x

L. Zapata, Modélisation du cortex visuel primaire de l'Homme, mémoire de DEA "Mécanique et Ingénierie, Institut de Mécanique des Fluides et des Solides, 2003.

B. Zenger and D. Sagi, Isolating Excitatory and Inhibitory Nonlinear Spatial Interactions Involved in Contrast Detection **Part of this paper was presented at the 17th ECVP conference, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (September 1994)., Vision Research, vol.36, issue.16, pp.2497-2513, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6989(95)00303-7