R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, Nonlinear refractive-index measurements of glasses using three-wave frequency mixing, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.4, issue.6, pp.4-6, 1987.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.4.000875

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals, Physical Review B, vol.39, issue.5, pp.39-44, 1989.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.39.3337

F. Auzel, Materials and devices using double-pumped-phosphors with energy transfer, Proceedings of the IEEE, pp.61-67, 1973.
DOI : 10.1109/PROC.1973.9155

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty et al., Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As???S???Se, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.256, issue.257, pp.256-257353, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-3093(99)00524-4

G. H. Dieke, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals, American Journal of Physics, vol.38, issue.3, 1968.
DOI : 10.1119/1.1976350

J. F. Ducel and J. J. Videau, Physical and chemical characterizations of sodium borophosphate glasses, Materials Letters, vol.13, issue.4-5, pp.271-274, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0167-577X(92)90230-H

E. Fargin, NON LINEAR OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BOROPHOSPHATE GLASSES, Phosphorus Research Bulletin, vol.10, issue.0, p.490, 1999.
DOI : 10.3363/prb1992.10.0_490

E. Fargin, A. Berthereau, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, A. Villesuzzanne et al., Contribution of theoretical chemistry to the investigation of optical non linearities in glasses, Annales de Chimie Science des Mat???riaux, vol.23, issue.1-2, pp.27-32, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0151-9107(98)80005-6

S. R. Friberg and P. W. Smith, Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol.23, issue.12, pp.23-35, 1987.
DOI : 10.1109/JQE.1987.1073278

S. Hoshino, M. Ito, and H. Yokota, Preparation of Er-doped optical fiber by the solgel method, Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, pp.92-94, 1992.
DOI : 10.1364/OFC.1992.TuL2

T. Méjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Leflem et al., Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium(I) tellurium(IV) oxide glasses, J. Solid State Chem, pp.146-329, 1999.

S. M. Jensen, The nonlinear coherent coupler, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, pp.30-40, 1982.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, Infrared???to???Visible Conversion by Rare???Earth Ions in Crystals, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.43, issue.3, pp.43-46, 1972.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1661225

A. Lattes, H. A. Haus, F. J. Leonberger, and E. P. Ippen, An ultrafast all-optical gate, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol.19, issue.11, pp.19-1718, 1983.
DOI : 10.1109/JQE.1983.1071766

M. E. Lines, Influence of d orbitals on the nonlinear optical response of transparent transition-metal oxides, Phys. Rev. B, pp.43-57, 1990.

P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, Study of Optical Effects Due to an Induced Polarization Third Order in the Electric Field Strength, Physical Review, vol.137, issue.3A, p.801, 1965.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.137.A801

M. Martin, J. J. Videau, L. Canioni, F. Adamietz, L. Sarger et al., Planar waveguides formed by Ag^+???Na^+ ion exchange in nonlinear optical glasses: diffusion and optical properties, Applied Optics, vol.39, issue.3, pp.39-42, 2000.
DOI : 10.1364/AO.39.000435

H. Nasu, O. Matsushita, K. Kamiya, H. Kobayashi, and K. Kubodera, Third harmonic generation from Li, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol.2, issue.2 2, pp.124-275, 1990.

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, Gain characteristics of a high concentration Er-doped phosphate glass waveguide, J. Appl. Phys, pp.78-84, 1995.

A. Polman, Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.82, issue.1, pp.82-83, 1997.
DOI : 10.1063/1.366265

Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics, Interscience, 1984.

K. Shuto, K. Hattori, T. Kitagawa, Y. Ohmori, and M. Horiguchi, Erbium-doped phosphosilicate glass waveguide amplifier fabricated by PECVD, Electronics Letters, vol.29, issue.2, pp.29-31, 1993.
DOI : 10.1049/el:19930094

E. Snoeks, G. N. Van-den-hoven, and A. Polman, Optical doping of soda???lime???silicate glass with erbium by ion implantation, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.73, issue.12, pp.73-75, 1993.
DOI : 10.1063/1.353432

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, Third order nonlinear integrated optics, Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol.6, issue.6, pp.6-6, 1988.
DOI : 10.1109/50.4087

G. I. Stegeman and R. H. Stolen, Waveguides and fibers for nonlinear optics, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.6, issue.4, pp.6-10, 1989.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.6.000652

J. P. Van-der-ziel, F. W. Ostermayer, and L. G. Van-uitert, Infrared excitation of visible luminescence in Y 1-x Er x F 3 via resonant energy transfer, Phys. Rev. B, pp.2-11, 1970.

S. N. Houde-walter, P. M. Peters, J. F. Stebbins, and Q. Zeng, Hydroxyl-contents and hydroxyl-related concentration quenching in erbium-doped aluminophosphate, aluminosilicate and fluorosilicate glasses, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.286, issue.1-2, pp.286-118, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-3093(00)00445-2

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, L. Neindre, L. Watson et al., Characterization of cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of Er 3+ and Yb 3+ / Er 3+ doped phosphate glasses, pp.3622-3632, 1999.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello et al., Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er^3+- and Yb^3+???Er^3+-doped phosphate glasses, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.17, issue.5, pp.17-22, 2000.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.17.000833

N. Jaba, A. Kanoun, H. Merji, A. Selmi, S. Alaya et al., Infrared to visible up-conversion study for erbium-doped zinc tellurite glasses, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol.12, issue.20, pp.12-4523, 2000.
DOI : 10.1088/0953-8984/12/20/307

P. B. Jamieson, S. C. Abrahams, and J. J. Bernstein, Ferroelectric tungsten bronze-type crystal structures. II. Barium sodium niobate Ba (4+x) Na (2-2x) Nb 10 O 30, J. Chem. Pys, pp.50-60, 1969.

C. Jiang, P. Deng, J. Zhang, G. Huang, and F. Gan, Yb: tellurogermanate laser glass with high emission cross section, J. Lumin, pp.82-321, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/s0022-2313(99)00049-6

C. Jiang, Q. Zeng, H. Liu, X. Tang, J. Zhang et al., Yb:Niobosilicate Glass with High-Emission Cross Section, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.22, issue.6, pp.83-90, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.2000.tb01454.x

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, Infrared???to???Visible Conversion by Rare???Earth Ions in Crystals, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.43, issue.3, pp.43-46, 1972.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1661225

B. R. Judd, Optical Absorption Intensities of Rare-Earth Ions, Physical Review, vol.127, issue.3, p.750, 1962.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.127.750

D. E. Mccumber, Einstein Relations Connecting Broadband Emission and Absorption Spectra, Physical Review, vol.136, issue.4A, pp.4-954, 1964.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.136.A954

J. Mcdougall, D. B. Hollis, and M. J. Payne, Spectroscopic properties of Er 3+ and Tm 3+ in tellurite glasses, Phys. Chem. Glasses, pp.37-43, 1996.

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, Phonon Sidebands, Multiphonon Relaxation of Excited States, and Phonon-Assisted Energy Transfer between Ions in Solids, Physical Review B, vol.1, issue.7, pp.1-7, 1970.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.1.2961

P. F. Moulton, Spectroscopic and laser characteristics of Ti:Al_2O_3, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.3, issue.1, pp.125-133, 1986.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.3.000125

E. V. Murashova, V. K. Trunov, and V. A. Yu, The crystal structures of the compounds BaNb 2 P 2 O 11 and NbPO 5 formed in the BaO-Nb 2 O 5 -P 2 O 5 system', Russ, J. Inorg. Chem, pp.31-38, 1986.

T. Murata, H. Takebe, and K. Morinaga, Compositional dependence of infrared to visible upconversion in Yb 3+ and Er 3+ codoped germanate, gallate and tellurite glasses, J.Am.Ceram.Soc, pp.81-82, 1998.

J. J. Videau, T. Cardinal, L. Flem, and G. , Crystallization of Na 4 Nb 8 P 4 O 32 in borophosphate glasses, Phosphorus Research Bulletin, pp.10-646, 1999.

M. J. Weber, Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Yttrium Orthoaluminate, Physical Review B, vol.8, issue.1, pp.1-54, 1973.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.8.54

Y. Yan, A. J. Faber, and H. Waal, Luminescence quenching by OH groups in highly Er-doped phosphate glasses, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.181, issue.3, pp.181-283, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-3093(94)00528-1

Z. Yao, Y. Ding, T. Nanba, and Y. Miura, Compositional dependences of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er 3+ in borosilicate glasses, Phys. Chem. Glasses, pp.40-79, 1999.

H. Yin, P. Deng, J. Zhang, and F. Gan, Determination of emission cross section of Yb 3+ in glasses by the reciprocity method, Materials letters, pp.30-59, 1997.

X. Zou and H. Toratani, Evaluation of spectroscopic properties of Yb 3+ doped glasses, Phys. Rev. B, pp.52-74, 1995.

L. Zhang and H. Hu, Evaluation of properties of Yb 3+ in tetraphosphate glass, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, pp.292-108, 2001.

A. A. Andradre, E. Tenorio, T. Catunda, M. L. Baesso, A. Cassanho et al., Discrimination between electronic and thermal contributions to the nonlinear refractive index of SrAlF_5:Cr^+3, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.16, issue.3, pp.395-400, 1999.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.16.000395

A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, and M. L. Baesso, Electronic and thermal contributions to the non-linear index of Nd 3+ ion-doped fluoride glasses, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, pp.273-257, 2000.

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, and P. L. Chu, Nonlinear index in erbium doped otical fiber : theory and experiment', IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol.27, pp.4-908, 1991.

T. Catunda, M. L. Baessa, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, Time-resolved Z-Scan ans thermal lens measurements in Er 3+ and Nd 3+ doped fluoroindate glasses, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, pp.213-214, 1997.

P. Franco and M. Midrio, Quasi-analytic solution of erbium doped fibre-amplifier power equations, App. Opt, pp.32-36, 1993.

Y. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell et al., Performance of high-concentration Er 3+ -Yb 3+ -codoped phosphate fibre amplifiers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett, pp.13-20, 2001.

Y. Imai and N. Matsuda, Nonlinear refractive index of Er 3+ -doped fiber and its application to nonlinear fiber coupler, Optical Review, pp.1-1, 1994.

S. Jarabo, Analytical theoretical model of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers, Optics Communications, vol.181, issue.4-6, pp.303-311, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0030-4018(00)00771-9

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, F. Smektala, K. Seneschal et al., Er 3+ doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, pp.263-264, 2000.

K. Li, Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, Direct measurement of nonlinear refractive index with an all-fibre Sagnac interferometer, Optics Communications, vol.136, issue.3-4, pp.136-223, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0030-4018(96)00689-X

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier, Electronics Letters, vol.33, issue.10, pp.33-43, 1997.
DOI : 10.1049/el:19970585

R. H. Pantell, R. W. Sadowski, M. J. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, Laser-diode-pumped nonlinear switch in erbium-doped fiber', Optics letters, pp.17-31, 1992.

R. H. Pantell, M. J. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, and H. J. Shaw, Analysis of nonlinear optical switching in an erbium-doped fiber, Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol.11, issue.9, pp.9-1416, 1993.
DOI : 10.1109/50.241931

R. C. Powell, S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, and G. D. Wilke, Four-wave mixing of Nd 3+ doped crystals and glasses, Phys. Rev. B, pp.41-54, 1990.

S. C. Weaver and S. Payne, Determination of excited-state polarizabilities of Cr 3+ doped materials by degenerate four-wave mixing, Phys. Rev. B, pp.40-56, 1989.

G. Xia, Z. Wu, Y. Lin, J. Chen, and S. Tao, A simple model of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers, Journal of Optics, vol.29, issue.4, pp.29-298, 1998.
DOI : 10.1088/0150-536X/29/4/009

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. De-waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, Erbium-doped phosphate waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535µm, Appl. Phys. Lett, pp.71-91, 1997.
DOI : 10.1063/1.120216

URL : http://repository.tue.nl/617793