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Effets propagatifs d'impulsions lumineuses femtosecondes dans des tunnels optiques

Abstract : We present two kinds of optical tunnels. We used optical femtosecond techniques to study their propagative properties. The first system is an artificial opal. Opal is a photonic crystal material (PCM) with properties that are similar to the semiconductors' ones in the optical domain. PCM's have a photonic band gap (PBG) that forbids for every direction the propagation of photons with energy included in this band. The second system is a bi-prism used in total reflection.
The first part of this report is dedicated to opals that are made of ordered layers of submicrometric silica spheres. Each step of the making-of is explained. We also gave a short theoretical description of PCM's for many kinds of structures. Consequently, we can say that opals don't have any PBG but a stop-band inhibiting transmission of photons which energy band depends on the direction. We related their structural characteristics with their spectral properties thank to microscopic and optical methods. A time-of-flight device has been developed using a time-gated two-photon absorption method in ZnS crystal in the order to determine propagative properties of opals probed by a spectral continuum. Then, frequency and time corrections are done.
Finally, we obtain spectral profile of group velocity in opals. We describe this profile with a Kramers-Krönig causality model that allows to identify stop-band with a photonic two-levels system. The last part concerns a study of an optical transposing of a new effect that has been demonstrated in tunneling conditions and called quantum evaporation effect (QEE). It produces a drastic increase of the transmission of a wave packet. It occurs when transferring a small momentum to the wave packet during its reflection on the barrier. A bi-prism in total reflection shared by a thin air gap is used to validate the conditions of this effect. We improved a pump-probe method to simulate the momentum transfer by the way of Kerr effect. Then, we show an analysis of every effects that kill the QEE. After data processing, we measure signals that have the characteristics of QEE. This work is a presumption of the first observation in optics of this new effect.
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Contributor : Benjamin Thomas <>
Submitted on : Friday, October 24, 2003 - 11:15:58 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 23, 2020 - 2:26:22 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Monday, September 17, 2012 - 3:20:37 PM


  • HAL Id : tel-00003643, version 1



Benjamin Thomas. Effets propagatifs d'impulsions lumineuses femtosecondes dans des tunnels optiques. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université Louis Pasteur - Strasbourg I, 2002. Français. ⟨tel-00003643⟩



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