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Interférométrie atomique avec l'atome de lithium : analyse théorique et construction d'un interféromètre, applications.

Caroline Champenois 1
1 Interférométrie (LCAR)
LCAR - Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité
Abstract : This thesis is devoted to studies which prepared the construction of an atom Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In such an interferometer, the propagating waves are spatially separated, and the internal state of the atom is not modified. The beam-splitters are diffraction gratings, consisting of standing optical waves near-resonant with an atomic transition. We use the Bloch functions to define the atom wave inside the standing wave grating and thus explain the diffraction process in different cases. We developed a nearly all-analytical model for the propagation of an atom wave inside a \MZ \ interferometer. The contrast of the signal is studied for many cases: phase or amplitude gratings, effects of extra paths, effects of the main mismatches, monochromatic or lightly polychromatic sources. Finally, we discuss three interferometric measurements we think very interesting. The first, the index of refraction of gas for atomic waves, is studied in detail, with numerical simulations. The other measures we propose deal with the electrical properties of lithium. We discuss the ultimate limit for the measure of the static electric polarizability of lithium by atomic interferometry. Then, we discuss how one could measure the possible charge of the lithium atom. We conclude that an optically cooled and collimated atom beam would improve precision.
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Caroline Champenois. Interférométrie atomique avec l'atome de lithium : analyse théorique et construction d'un interféromètre, applications.. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 1999. Français. ⟨tel-00003602⟩

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