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Interaction électron-électron dans les fils mésoscopiques

Abstract : In metallic thin films, the screening of Coulomb interactions is less efficient than in bulk metals, because of electron elastic scattering from film boundaries, lattice defects, and impurities. As a consequence, at sub-Kelvin temperatures, electron-electron interactions are expected to be the dominant inelastic process undergone by electrons, which determines energy exchange and limits the electronic phase coherence. We present in this thesis three experiments that probe inelastic collisions experienced by electrons at low temperature, in order to find out their mechanism. In the first part, we present a series of measurements of the energy distribution function of electrons in copper, gold and silver wires driven in a steady-state, out of equilibrium situation. These experiments reveal the rate at which electrons exchange energy. These results are compared in the second part with the temperature dependence of the phase coherence time of electrons tf, which is deduced from the magnetoresistance of long wires. The phase coherence of electrons is limited by all inelastic collisions, independently of the energy exchanged. Different mechanisms to account for the energy exchange rate and dephasing times are proposed and compared with experiments. In the third part, we present measurements of the conductance of a long tunnel junction between an aluminum wire and a ground plane. The dip in the conductance at zero voltage is expected from the theory of electron-electron interactions. To compare measurements and theoretical predictions, we rephrase the microscopic theory of electron-electron interactions in terms of an electromagnetic impedance, as is done for the phenomenological theory of Coulomb blockade.
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Submitted on : Monday, February 17, 2003 - 1:37:29 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00002410, version 1


Frédéric Pierre. Interaction électron-électron dans les fils mésoscopiques. Matière Condensée [cond-mat]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2000. Français. ⟨tel-00002410⟩



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