Abstract : MUNU detector, designed for the study of neutrino-electron diffusion using antineutrinos from a nuclear reactor, is a time projection chamber (TPC) containing CF4 gas. The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether such a detector could be used to measure the low energy solar neutrinos spectrum. For this study, three aspects were essentials : energy resolution, angular resolution and detector background. The two first ones because the neutrino energy is calculated using the energy and initial direction of the recoil electron, The third one because the number of expected interactions is small and implies a very low level of background. First, a theoretical and experimental review of solar neutrinos physics is carried out. Then, the MUNU detector characteristics and its operating principle are presented. Following, the detector performances are approached one by one : the detector calibration methods and the energy resolution ; the determination of the electron initial direction and the angular resolution related to ; and the different background origins as well as the events rates induced. Finally, the simulation results of the solar neutrinos detection are given. They point out necessary improvements and issues which require further studies.