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conception et réalisation d'un gyromètre à atomes froids fondé sur l'effet Sagnac pour les ondes de matière

Abstract : The purpose of my thesis was to use the recent developments of atom laser manipulation to build a device that can measure rotation rate as accurately as the best optical gyroscopes. Like optical gyroscopes, atomic gyroscopes are based on the Sagnac effect. The Sagnac effect consists in a extra phase shift at the output of a non zero area interferometer, when it is rotating. We show that the Sagnac effect for matter waves of Cesium atoms, for example, is 1011 times more sensitive than for optical waves. The main difficulty concerning the device is to coherently separate and recombine the atomic waves. We do this in the interaction zone thanks to two-photon transitions called stimulated Raman transitions. The impulsions of the two photons, once transferred to the atom, is what provokes the angular separation for the two atomic wave packets. Building the device implied finding many new technical solutions, which proved to work well. One of the main problems was to build a device small enough, and as unchanged by outside parameters (magnetic fields, temperature, etc.) as possible, to be transportable. Our atomic source is a laser cooled atom source, which allows a small interaction zone while maintaining a very good level of performance. The device is also sensitive to accelerations ; a counter-propagating double atomic jet technique has therefore been used to discriminate between rotation and acceleration phase shift.
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Contributor : David Holleville <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, February 12, 2002 - 12:16:38 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 11, 2019 - 1:11:17 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Tuesday, June 2, 2015 - 3:15:16 PM


  • HAL Id : tel-00001098, version 1



David Holleville. conception et réalisation d'un gyromètre à atomes froids fondé sur l'effet Sagnac pour les ondes de matière. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2001. Français. ⟨tel-00001098⟩



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