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Theses

Fluid-structure interaction problems involving deformable membranes : application to blood flows at macroscopic and microscopic scales

Abstract : This thesis deals with several scientific aspects inherent to the numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction problems involving thin deformable membranes. Two specific cases relevant to cardiovascular biomechanics are considered: the interaction of the blood flow with the aortic valve (which occurs at the macroscopic scale), and the interaction of the red blood cells membrane with its inner and outer fluids (which occurs at the microscopic scale). In both cases, the fluid-structure interaction coupling is handled using an immersed boundary formalism, representing the membrane by a Lagrangian mesh moving through an Eulerian fluid mesh.When dealing with red blood cells dynamics, the membrane is considered to be an infinitely thin and massless structure. The first question which is addressed in the present thesis work is how to model the complex microstructure of the red blood cells membrane. A possible way to characterize a suitable membrane model is to simulate the optical tweezers experiment, which is a well-controlled experimental configuration enabling to study the individual mechanics of an isolated red blood cell in a large range of deformation. Some relevant membrane models are identified, but the deformation characteristics measured during the optical tweezers experiment reveal to be not selective enough to be used in a validation context. Additional deformation measurements are proposed, which could allow a better characterization of the red blood cell membrane mechanics.Regarding the macroscopic configurations, an innovative numerical method is proposed to handle numerical simulations of 3D continuum membranes, still within the immersed boundary formalism. In this method, called immersed thick boundary method, the membrane has a finite thickness. The accuracy and robustness of the method are demonstrated through a variety of well-chosen test cases. Then, the proposed method is applied to a realistic fluid-structure interaction problem, namely the interaction of a pulsatile (blood) flow with a biomimetic aortic valve. A combined experimental and numerical study is led, showing that the method is able to capture the global dynamics of the valve, as well as the main features of the flow downstream of the valve.All the developments were performed within the YALES2BIO solver developed at IMAG, which is thus available for further improvements, validations and applicative studies.
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  • HAL Id : hal-01487308, version 2

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Julien Sigüenza. Fluid-structure interaction problems involving deformable membranes : application to blood flows at macroscopic and microscopic scales. Human health and pathology. Université Montpellier, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016MONTT301⟩. ⟨hal-01487308v2⟩

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