Caractérisation de la distribution verticale des gaz à effet de serre CO2 et CH4 par mesures sous ballons. Application à la validation d'observations satellites

Abstract : Monitoring and understanding the evolution of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases(carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) are some of the major challenges in climate science. Over the past decades,the increased availability and diversity of observations (surface networks, aircraft campaigns, satellite observations)and the improvement of atmospheric transport models has allowed to increase our understanding of biogeochemicalcycles of CO2 and CH4. Nevertheless, precise vertical observations are still very rare. However, these become crucialto both properly characterize the vertical transport of the gases, as well as to fully evaluate total or partial columnsof gases retrieved from space observations.In this thesis, we present an innovative instrument called “AirCore” allowing to collect a continuous air samplealong an atmospheric column while descending from high altitude. The analysis of CO2 and CH4 mole fractions inthe collected sample combined with the measurements of an ambient parameters (Pressure, temperature...) allows toretrieve vertical profiles from the surface up to 30 km. Initially invented at NOAA, several new AirCores giving accessto various vertical resolutions have been developed at LMD and flown with success during the CNES Strato-Sciences2014, 2015, and 2016 balloon campaigns. Excellent agreement was found between profiles acquired with differentAirCores during the same flights demonstrating the repeatability of the measurements and allowing to validate thecalculation of the vertical resolution. Comparisons with measurements from independent laser diode spectrometersflown on the same gondola have confirmed that AirCore profiles capture the vertical variability of CO2 and CH4.The vertical profiles retrieved from AirCores have been allowed to validate the CH4 partial columns retrieved fromIASI/Metop at LMD and revealed that the information on the full atmospheric column is required. Comparisons havebeen performed with tropospheric profiles obtained during aircraft campaigns (HIPPO) as well as vertical profilesextracted from atmospheric transport models (LMDz,TM5) and forecast systems (CAMS). Results demonstrated theimportance of a good characterization of the stratosphere for satellite
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Olivier Membrive. Caractérisation de la distribution verticale des gaz à effet de serre CO2 et CH4 par mesures sous ballons. Application à la validation d'observations satellites. Climatologie. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066509⟩. ⟨tel-01525863⟩

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