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Ecotoxicologie microbienne des plastiques en mer : colonisation et biodégradation par la plastisphère

Abstract : Nowadays, plastic waste has invaded all of the world's marine ecosystems, sparing no area. The global demand for plastic continues to grow year after year, despite its dramatic impact on the environment when plastic is left in nature. It is estimated that each year between 4.8 and 12.7 million tonnes of plastics end up in the oceans. This PhD aims and works fall within the framework of this environmental emergency, by making possible to better identify the bacterial biofilms attached to different plastics (the so called "plastisphere) and to better characterize the biodegradation process of certain polymers in the marine environment. The first stage, was to analyse the microbial diversity of samples taken during two expeditions (the Tara-Mediterranean expedition and Tara-Pacific) in order to characterize the biogeography of bacterial biofilms specific to plastics. The comparison between samples from the Pacific and the Mediterranean see allow to highlight an ecological niche on the surface of plastics distinct from the surrounding water. Niche which is clearly influenced by geography, explained mainly by temperature. The taxonomic study revealed a "core microbiome" dominated by a genus affiliated to the cyanobacteria and families (Rhodobacteraceae and flavobacteraceae) known to be colonizers of plastic in the marine environment. Then, the bacterial colonization on different polymers was studied in aquarium using uninterrupted circulation of seawater collected continuously from the Banyuls Bay. The biodegradation process was studied using an artificial environment without any other carbon source than the polymer in order to mimic the marine environment, and by following several experimental parameters (Bacterial production, respiration, loss of mass). In our study we observed during the growth phase of the biofilm no specific microbial communities related to the nature of the polymers. The biodegradation process has been demonstrated on certain polymers such as PHBV, Bioplast, Mater-Bi and cellulose, in particular due to the bacterial activity maintained throughout the incubation. Next, a strain Alteromonas sp., isolated from the mature biofilm of the PHBV allow us to explore its biodegradation capabilities. The analysis of the genome of Alteromonas sp. revealed the presence of 4 depolymerases, with 3 external and 1 internal, explaining its ability to degrade PHBV. The study of the genome also revealed two pathways for the PHA synthesis, one allowing the synthesis of PHASCL and the other of PHAMCL. Finally, the study of the biodegradation of PHBV by a natural consortium was done using isotopic labelling of the polymer. This experiment, coupled with metagenomic analysis, allowed the study of functional communities that can assimilate the carbon of the polymer. Thus, this PhD work enhanced the identification of the bacterial communities inhabiting the biofilms developed on the surface of polymers (biodegradable and non-degradable), and also to refine the characterization of the biodegradation process in the marine environment owing the use of various parameters such as the bacterial production, respiration, weight loss, monitoring of labeled carbon and microscopy. These studies are essential for a better understanding of the biodegradation process of plastics at sea and thus to propose adaptations to the standards methods governing the marine environment and currently not very representative.
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Submitted on : Monday, October 18, 2021 - 1:01:42 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03381781, version 1

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Justine Jacquin. Ecotoxicologie microbienne des plastiques en mer : colonisation et biodégradation par la plastisphère. Ecosystèmes. Sorbonne Université, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020SORUS104⟩. ⟨tel-03381781⟩

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