Construire la compétence lexicale : quelle place en didactique pour le cotexte ?

Abstract : We seek in this research to better understand the construction of the lexical competency in young pupils. Our purpose is based on research in lexical semantics and in didactic that advocates the study of the role of the syntagmatic dimension of the lexicon in lexical analysis. We assume that vocabulary teaching focusing on the explicit study of the structure of the co-text of lexical units can encourage the construction of the lexical competency. We propose a didactic reflection based on integrative approaches of contemporary lexicology. We study the concept of competency in order to propose our own definition of the lexical competency, the subject of our research. We describe the co-text that is done, for us, of the frequent co-occurrence used in the same sentence as the unit studied. In a didactic perspective, we then propose a grammatical structuration of the co-text.From this framework, our protocol our protocol consists in testing a didactic device considering an organized and systematic teaching of the lexicon. We test this device in two 6th grade classes (11-12 years). In one class, the explicit teaching of the co-text structure is proposed, while in the other class various exercises taken from textbooks are practiced. We evaluate at the end of a school year, in the 5th grade class, the impact of this teaching on the development of the lexical competency. The analysis shows the subjects who received explicit instruction of the co-text's structure tended to rely on the co-text more than the others in their search of sense. The results obtained after a year lead us to consider that the explicit study of the co-text structure causes effects on two levels. On the one hand, the pupils use a new strategy for interpreting the lexical units, this exercise of metacognition allows them to better understand the functioning of the system in order to control the inference, and thus develop their lexical competency. On the other hand, the teacher also deepened his knowledge of the organization of the lexicon, which promotes the integration of the semantic, morphological and syntagmatic structures. In view of these results, and as part of teacher training, we present consequently concrete didactic courses of teaching lexicon.
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Anne Sardier. Construire la compétence lexicale : quelle place en didactique pour le cotexte ?. Linguistique. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAL013⟩. ⟨tel-01424599⟩

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