Le TBI comme instument du développement de la conscience phonémique à l'école : une approche ergonomique

Abstract : This thesis seeks to study the effect of an explicit training of phonemic awareness (PA) in English L2 and the possible contribution of an Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) as a tool to carry such a training with 7-8 year old learners (in CE1 in France). Based on the work of some educators like Borel-Maisonny and Caleb Gattegno, we created some multimodal materials which are visual, sound and kinesthetic. We used the colors from Gattegno’s approach to create cards to which we attached the sound representation of each phoneme. These cards could also be moved on the IWB. Hence, the manipulation done on the IWB might help the mental manipulation that the learner should normally do mentally. The full representation for each phoneme is an external multimodal integrated representation (EMIR). These EMIR were used among a learning scenario which aimed to test research hypotheses. First of all, the aim was to know whether explicit tasks of phonemic awareness were useful or not. Then, the aim was to check the effect, in any, of the IWB in such a learning scenario concerning phonemic awareness. These research hypotheses have been tested thanks to three groups: two experimental groups and one control group. One group carried out the activities of phonemic awareness with EMIR on an IWB (PA-IWB group), one group carried out the same activities but on a traditional way, that-is-to-say mentally with any multimodal help (PA group) while the control group carried out some activities based on vocabulary. By comparing the control group with the PA group, we found out the effect, if any, of the explicit training of phonemic awareness and, by comparing the PA group with the PA-IWB group, we found out the effect, if any, of the multimodal tools used on the IWB. This research aims to take action in the field of ergonomics since teachers and learners are considered as being at work. This research fits into the field of cognitive ergonomics. Here, the quasi-experimentation was carried out during the school year 2011-2012 with 7-8 year old learners from Isère, France. Using a mixed research method, we triangulated qualitative data with quantitative data in order to get the most accurate results with an internal validity. This study shows that an explicit training of phonemic awareness (PA) has an effect on the level that learners can reach in PA and that the use of EMIR on an IWB allows learners to get an even better level in the same amount of time. Besides, it also appears that the use of the IWB for this kind of training helps the teacher when s/he is not a specialist in the target language. S/he can step aside, regulate the work and provide the correct pronunciation, which helps her/him reinforcing her/his feeling of self-efficacy as defined by Bandura (2003). Finally, the IWB urges the learners on interacting as a whole group and so discovering the English phonemes all together.
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Emilie Magnat. Le TBI comme instument du développement de la conscience phonémique à l'école : une approche ergonomique. Linguistique. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENL005⟩. ⟨tel-00997215⟩

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