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Dipole dipole interactions in dense alkali vapors confined in nano-scale cells.

Tom Peyrot 1
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Optique Quantique
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : Alkali vapors confined in nano-scale cells are promising tools for future integrated atom-based sensor. In this thesis, we investigate the interaction between light and an ensemble of atoms confined in a nano-geometry. We focus on the different processes that can modify the optical response of the atomic ensemble and possibly affect the sensitivity of a sensor based on that technology. First, we study the non-local response of atoms to a light excitation due the atomic motion in thermal vapors. When the distance over which the atoms relaxes is larger than the size of the cell, the optical response depends on the size of the system. We have observed that for transmission spectroscopy, this leads to a periodic modification of the optical response with a period equal to the wavelength of the optical transition. Subsequently we showed that when the density ofatom increases, the atomic response becomes local again. In this dense regime, the resonant dipole-dipole interaction in a sub-wavelength geometry leads to collective frequency shifts of the spectral lines. We demonstrate that these shifts were induced by the cavity formed by the cell walls, hence clarifying a long-standing issue. We developed a model to extract the density shifts deconvolved from the cavity effects. Close to a surface, the optical response is also affected by the van der Waals atom-surface interaction. We introduced a new method to extract precisely the strength of this interaction. We also developed a new generation of super-polished glass nano-cells and we presented promising spectroscopic signals. Finally, using these cells, we have compared transmission and off-axis spectroscopic techniques.
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Submitted on : Monday, October 21, 2019 - 10:14:18 AM
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Tom Peyrot. Dipole dipole interactions in dense alkali vapors confined in nano-scale cells.. Optics [physics.optics]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLO012⟩. ⟨tel-02321334⟩

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