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Déterminants nutritionnels précoces du neurodéveloppement des enfants de l'étude EDEN : rôle des acides gras polyinsaturés

Abstract : Context: From conception to adulthood, many environmental determinants influence neurodevelopment. Studies showed that in late pregnancy and the first months of life, a large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially long-chain-PUFA (LCPUFA), accretes in the brain. Optimal intake during these critical periods could support the brain development and its cognitive functions.Aims: To investigate the relationships between pre- and early postnatal exposures to PUFA, and neurodevelopment of 2 and 3 years old children.Population: Data were those from the EDEN mother-child cohort study, in which 2002 pregnant women were recruited between 2003 and 2006 in the maternities of Nancy and Poitiers. Maternal food intake during pregnancy was evaluated by food frequency questionnaire combined with a food composition table. Duration of breastfeeding was assessed by 4 postnatal questionnaires. Lipids in colostrum of breastfeeding mothers were analyzed by gas chromatography. Several aspects of the cognitive and motor development were assessed by both parental questionnaires (2 and 3 y) and neuropsychological examination (3 y). Statistical analyzes were performed by multiple linear regressions, after adjusting for many potential confounders.Results: At 2 and 3 years, scores of neurodevelopment were higher among breastfed children than among never breastfed children. Among breastfed children, breastfeeding duration was positively associated with neurodevelopment. Maternal dietary n 6/n 3 ratio during late pregnancy was negatively associated with measures of neurodevelopment, and this association was reinforced among never breastfed children. Colostrum composition in PUFA and LCPUFA greatly reflected maternal intake during pregnancy. Use of oils/fats for cooking and seasoning was associated with colostrum composition. The differences of neurodevelopment of breastfed children did not seem to be explained by PUFA nor LCPUFA in colostrum, except for total linoleic acid that was negatively associated with some measures of neurodevelopment. In general, associations with neurodevelopment were more frequently found with assessments by parental questionnaires, but measures by psychologists sometimes confirmed the results.Conclusion: Combined with the literature, these results underline the importance of PUFA exposures during pre- and postnatal periods for the child neurodevelopment. Follow-up of children up to 5 years will allow to investigate whether those results persist later in childhood. From a public health perspectives, this work reiterates the need to promote breastfeeding duration and to monitor the balance of PUFA intake during pregnancy and lactation periods.
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Jonathan Bernard. Déterminants nutritionnels précoces du neurodéveloppement des enfants de l'étude EDEN : rôle des acides gras polyinsaturés. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA11T095⟩. ⟨tel-00986264⟩

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