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Cosmology intertwined: A review of the particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology associated with the cosmological tensions and anomalies

Elcio Abdalla Guillermo Franco Abellán 1 Amin Aboubrahim Adriano Agnello Ozgur Akarsu yashar Akrami 2, 3 George Alestas Daniel Aloni Luca Amendola Luis A. Anchordoqui Richard I. Anderson Nikki Arendse Marika Asgari Mario Ballardini Vernon Barger Spyros Basilakos Ronaldo C. Batista Elia S. Battistelli Richard Battye Micol Benetti David Benisty Asher Berlin Paolo de Bernardis Emanuele Berti Bohdan Bidenko Simon Birrer John P. Blakeslee Kimberly K. Boddy Clecio R. Bom Alexander Bonilla Nicola Borghi François R. Bouchet 4 Matteo Braglia Thomas Buchert 5 Elizabeth Buckley-Geer Erminia Calabrese Robert R. Caldwell David Camarena Salvatore Capozziello Stefano Casertano Geoff C.-F. Chen Jens Chluba Angela Chen Hsin-yu Chen Anton Chudaykin Michele Cicoli Craig J. Copi Fred Courbin Francis-yan Cyr-Racine Bozena Czerny Maria Dainotti Guido d'Amico Anne-Christine Davis Javier Pérez de Cruz Jaume de Haro Jacques Delabrouille 6, 7 Peter B. Denton Suhail Dhawan Keith R. Dienes Eleonora Di Valentino Pu Du Dominique Eckert Celia Escamilla-Rivera Agnès Ferté Fabio Finelli Pablo Fosalba Wendy L. Freedman Noemi Frusciante Enrique Gaztañaga William Giarè Elena Giusarma Adrià Gómez-Valent Will Handley Ian Harrison Luke Hart Dhiraj Kumar Hazra Alan Heavens Asta Heinesen 5 Hendrik Hildebrandt J. Colin Hill Natalie B. Hogg Daniel E. Holz Deanna C. Hooper Nikoo Hosseininejad Dragan Huterer Mustapha Ishak Mikhail M. Ivanov Andrew H. Jaffe In Sung Jang Karsten Jedamzik 1 Raul Jimenez Melissa Joseph Shahab Joudaki Marc Kamionkowski Tanvi Karwal Lavrentios Kazantzidis Ryan E. Keeley Michael Klasen Eiichiro Komatsu Léon V.E. Koopmans Suresh Kumar Luca Lamagna Ruth Lazkoz Chung-Chi Lee Julien Lesgourgues Jackson Said Levi Tiffany R. Lewis Benjamin L'Huillier Matteo Lucca Roy Maartens Lucas M. Macri Danny Marfatia Valerio Marra Carlos J.A.P. Martins Silvia Masi Sabino Matarrese Arindam Mazumdar Alessandro Melchiorri Olga Mena Laura Mersini-Houghton James Mertens Dinko Milakovic yuto Minami Vivian Miranda Cristian Moreno-Pulido Michele Moresco David F. Mota Emil Mottola Simone Mozzon Jessica Muir Ankan Mukherjee Suvodip Mukherjee Pavel Naselsky Pran Nath Savvas Nesseris Florian Niedermann Alessio Notari Rafael C. Nunes Eoin Ó. Colgáin Kayla A. Owens Emre Ozulker Francesco Pace Andronikos Paliathanasis Antonella Palmese Supriya Pan Daniela Paoletti Santiago E. Bergliaffa Perez Leandros Perivolaropoulos Dominic W. Pesce Valeria Pettorino 8 Oliver H.E. Philcox Levon Pogosian Vivian Poulin 1 Gaspard Poulot Marco Raveri Mark J. Reid Fabrizio Renzi Adam G. Riess Vivian I. Sabla Paolo Salucci Vincenzo Salzano Emmanuel N. Saridakis Bangalore S. Sathyaprakash Martin Schmaltz Nils Schöneberg Dan Scolnic Anjan A. Sen Neelima Sehgal Arman Shafieloo M.M. Sheikh-Jabbari Joseph Silk 4 Alessandra Silvestri Foteini Skara Martin S. Sloth Marcelle Soares-Santos Joan Peracaula Solà yu-yang Songsheng Jorge F. Soriano Denitsa Staicova Glenn D. Starkman István Szapudi Elsa M. Teixeira Brooks Thomas Tommaso Treu Emery Trott Carsten van de Bruck J. Alberto Vazquez Licia Verde Luca Visinelli Deng Wang Jian-Min Wang Shao-Jiang Wang Richard Watkins Scott Watson John K. Webb Neal Weiner Amanda Weltman Samuel J. Witte Radosław Wojtak Anil Kumar yadav Weiqiang yang Gong-Bo Zhao Miguel Zumalacárregui 
Abstract : The standard Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model provides a good description of a wide range of astrophysical and cosmological data. However, there are a few big open questions that make the standard model look like an approximation to a more realistic scenario yet to be found. In this paper, we list a few important goals that need to be addressed in the next decade, taking into account the current discordances between the different cosmological probes, such as the disagreement in the value of the Hubble constant H0, the σ8S8 tension, and other less statistically significant anomalies. While these discordances can still be in part the result of systematic errors, their persistence after several years of accurate analysis strongly hints at cracks in the standard cosmological scenario and the necessity for new physics or generalisations beyond the standard model. In this paper, we focus on the 5.0σ tension between the Planck CMB estimate of the Hubble constant H0 and the SH0ES collaboration measurements. After showing the H0 evaluations made from different teams using different methods and geometric calibrations, we list a few interesting new physics models that could alleviate this tension and discuss how the next decade's experiments will be crucial. Moreover, we focus on the tension of the Planck CMB data with weak lensing measurements and redshift surveys, about the value of the matter energy density Ωm, and the amplitude or rate of the growth of structure (σ8,fσ8). We list a few interesting models proposed for alleviating this tension, and we discuss the importance of trying to fit a full array of data with a single model and not just one parameter at a time. Additionally, we present a wide range of other less discussed anomalies at a statistical significance level lower than the H0S8 tensions which may also constitute hints towards new physics, and we discuss possible generic theoretical approaches that can collectively explain the non-standard nature of these signals. Finally, we give an overview of upgraded experiments and next-generation space missions and facilities on Earth that will be of crucial importance to address all these open questions.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 4, 2022 - 2:02:52 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, June 29, 2022 - 1:31:09 PM

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Elcio Abdalla, Guillermo Franco Abellán, Amin Aboubrahim, Adriano Agnello, Ozgur Akarsu, et al.. Cosmology intertwined: A review of the particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology associated with the cosmological tensions and anomalies. JHEAp, 2022, 34, pp.49-211. ⟨10.1016/j.jheap.2022.04.002⟩. ⟨hal-03658872⟩

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