26565 articles – 20400 references  [version française]
Detailed view Article in peer-reviewed journal
Environmental Research 116 (2012) 58-65
Lead contamination in French children's homes and environment
Jean-Paul Lucas1, 2, Barbara Lebot, Philippe Glorennec3, Anne Etchevers4, Philippe Bretin5, Francis Douay6, Véronique Sébille2, 7, Lise Bellanger8, Corinne Mandin1

Lead in homes is a well-known source of childhood lead exposure,which is still of concern due to the health effects of low lead doses. This study aims to describe lead contamination in the homes of children aged 6 months to 6 years in France (without overseas). Between October 2008 and August 2009 ,484 housing units were investigated. Lead in tap water and total and leachable lead levels from floor dust, outdoor soils and paint chips were measured. X-ray fluorescence measurements were carried out on non-metallic and metallic substrates. Nationwide results are provided. The indoor floor dust lead (PbD) geometric mean (GM) was 8.8 microg/m2 (0.8 microg/ft2) and 6.8 mmicrog/m2 (0.6 mg/ft2) for total and leachable lead respectively; 0.21% of homes had an indoor PbD loading above 430.5 microg/m2 (40 microg/ft2). The outdoor play area concentration GM was 33.5microg/kg and 21.7microgkg in total and leachable lead respectively; 1.4% of concentrations were higher than or equal to 400microg/kg. Outdoor floor PbD GM was 44.4 mg/m2 (4.1 mg/ft2) that was approximately 3.2 times higher than the GM of indoor PbD. Lead-based paint (LBP) was present in 25% of dwellings, LBP on only non-metallic substrates was present in 19% of homes and on metallic substrates in 10% of dwellings. The GM of lead concentrations in tap water was below 1 microg/L; 58% of concentrations were lower than 1 microg/L and 2.9% were higher than or equal to 10 mg/L. The age cut-off for homes with lead would be 1974 for paint and 1993 for indoor floor dust. This study provides, for the first time, a look at the state of lead contamination to which children are exposed in French housing. Moreover, it provides policy makers an estimate of the number of French dwellings sheltering children where abatement should be conducted.
1:  CSTB - Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment
2:  Biostatistique, Recherche Clinique et Mesures Subjectives en Santé
3:  Irset - Institut de recherche, santé, environnement et travail
4:  INVS - Institut de Veille Sanitaire
5:  Département santé environnement
6:  Laboratoire Sols et Environnement
7:  Plateforme de Biométrie, Cellule de promotion de la recherche clinique
8:  LMJL - Laboratoire de Mathématiques Jean Leray
Lead – Housing survey – Lead paint – Dust lead – Soil lead – Water lead