25355 articles – 19602 references  [version française]
Detailed view Article in peer-reviewed journal
Pattern Recognition 45, 1 (2011) 333-345
Semantic hierarchies for image annotation: A survey
Anne-Marie Tousch1, 2, 3, Stéphane Herbin2, Jean-Yves Audibert1, 3, 4

In this survey, we argue that using structured vocabularies is capital to the success of image annotation. We analyze literature on image annotation uses and user needs, and we stress the need for automatic annotation. We briefly expose the difficulties posed to machines for this task and how it relates to controlled vocabularies. We survey contributions in the field showing how structures are introduced. First we present studies that use unstructured vocabulary, focusing on those introducing links between categories or between features. Then we review work using structured vocabularies as an input and we analyze how the structure is exploited.
1:  IMAGINE
2:  ONERA
3:  LIGM - Laboratoire d'Informatique Gaspard-Monge
4:  INRIA Paris - Rocquencourt - SIERRA
Image annotation – Semantic description – Structured vocabulary – Image retrieval