4084 articles – 2 references  [version française]
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Complexity perspective in innovation and social change, D. Lane, D. Pumain, S. Van der Leeuw, G. West (Ed.) (2009) 197-220
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Organization-Bretagnolle-Hal.pdf(2.6 MB)
The organisation of urban systems
Anne Bretagnolle1, Denise Pumain2, Céline Vacchiani-Marcuzzo1

We develop here a theory of the organization of cities and systems of cities as multilevel networks, including two main observable levels, where specific emergent properties can be observed. We use an evolutionary perspective, which is based on observations about the way cities co-evolve within urban systems, through a variety of social interactions. Empirical evidence of the corresponding patterns and processes is provided for three main styles of urbanization, exemplified in four different parts of the world.
1:  GC - Géographie-cités
2:  RNSC - Réseau National des Systèmes Complexes
Urban systems – Hierarchy – Innovation – Transportation – Europe – India – South Africa – United States