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Detailed view PhD thesis
INSA de Lyon (28/11/2006), Patrick ROUSSEAUX (Dir.)
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Un indicateur d'impact environnemental global des polluants atmosphériques émis par les transports
T. Goger1

On cherche à construire un indicateur d'impact environnemental global de la pollution atmosphérique semblable au potentiel de réchauffement climatique. Il doit permettre d'estimer l'impact environnemental global de la pollution atmosphérique induit par les transports, tout en conservant la valeur de l'impact environnemental de chaque catégorie d'impact, ainsi que l'évaluation des émissions. On s'appuie pour cela sur une typologie des impacts basée sur les connaissances scientifiques, la recherche d'un indicateur pour chaque type pollution, et l'élaboration d'une architecture d'agrégation de la pollution de l'air, qui permet d'intégrer l'ensemble des catégories d'impact environnemental au sein d'un impact global des polluants atmosphériques, et d'assister l'utilisateur à hiérarchiser ses préoccupations vis-à-vis de chacune des catégories d'impact de la pollution de l'air
1:  LTE - Laboratoire Transport et Environnement
Pollution de l'air – transport – évaluation – critères – indicateurs – émissions – qualité de l'air – impact – développement durable

We intend to build a global environmental impact indicator of air pollution to assess transport infrastructures, technologies or flows. This indicator tries to be simple and transparent to facilitate its use in decision-making. The intention is for the indicator to be like the Global Warming Potential (GWP), which establishes a relationship between the emission of six greenhouse gases and the average temperature increase of the Earth. The indicator therefore allows estimating the global environmental impact of transport-generated air pollution, while simultaneously conserving the value of the environmental impact of each type of air pollution and the emission assessment. This work is based on an environmental impact typology, a set of indicators, and aggregation architecture of atmospheric pollution. The typology is established as a function of the specific and homogenous characteristics of each type of pollution in terms of pollutants, impact mechanisms, targets and environmental impacts. To ensure exhaustiveness and non-redundancy, 10 types of air pollution impact are proposed: greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, direct ecotoxicity (this type of pollution excludes greenhouse effects on nature, ozone depletion, eutrophication, acidification and photochemical pollution), eutrophication, acidification, photochemical pollution, restricted direct health effects (not taking into account welfare, and excluding the effects on health of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, acidification and photochemical pollution), sensitive pollution (annoyance caused by odours and fumes), and degradation of common and historical man-made heritage. Indicators similar to GWP can be identified in the literature for each type of atmospheric pollution, except for the degradation of common and historical man-made heritage, for which none indicator have been suggested. However, these indicators do not seem to have achieved wide scientific consensus, except for GWP, which may make it necessary to continue research in this field. Aggregating the different indicators is proposed by using an architecture composed of two structures that aggregate types of air pollution. One is based on the target affected, whereas the second has three dimensions, i.e. targets, space and time. This architecture allows also the indicator's users to establish a hierarchy of concerns for each type of atmospheric pollution. The indicator makes thus it possible to give a global value to impact of air pollutants, taking into account scientific assessment and social perception.
Air pollution – transport – assessment – criteria – indicators – emissions – air quality – impact – sustainable development

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